LHC: The Lien-Hua-Chih Hydrometeorological Study Site

General site detail (Updated 12 March 2018)
 Site name
 The Lien-Hua-Chih Hydrometeorological Study Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Nantou, Taiwan
 Position 120º 53' 38.94'' E 23º 55' 51.48''N
 Elevation 773 m above sea level
 Slope 30 - 40 deg
 Terrain type
 Gently rolling hill
 Area 8.39 ha
 Fetch 100-200m
 Climate Mild with dry winter, hot summer (Cwa)
 Mean annual air temperature
 19.2 in Celsius (data from 1971 to 2000)
 Mean annual precipitation
 2404.6 mm (data from 1971 to 2000
 Vegetation type
 Evergreen & Hardwood
 Domestic species
 Engelard Roxlourghiana (黄杞), Tutcheria  Shinkoensis (烏皮茶), and Cryptocarya Chinensis (厚殼桂)
 Dominant species
 Pteridaceae(鳳尾蕨科): Pteris dispar Kunze (天草鳳尾蕨)
 Fabaceae(蝶形花科): Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (血藤)
 Canopy height
 About 15 meter in average
 Age 70 - 100+ years old
 LAI 2.4 to 4.5 (Overstory Growing Season)
 Soil type

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open path Eddy Covariance
 (sensible heat, latent heat and CO2 fluxes )
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3A, Campbell, USA)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3A, Campbell, USA)
 Water vapor
 Open path Gas Analyzer (EC-150, Campbell)
 CO2 Open path Gas Analyzer (EC-150, Campbell)
 Measurement height
 25 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 60 min
 Data logger
 CR1000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data / Available

 Observation items
 Levels/ Depth
 Global solar
 radiation (incoming)
 23 m
 solar radiation sensor (Campbell NR01)
 Global solar
 radiation (outgoing)
 23 m
 solar radiation sensor (Campbell NR01)
 Long-wave radiation
 23 m
 Infrared radiation sensor (Campbell NR01)
 Long-wave radiation (outgoing) 23 m
 Infrared radiation sensor (Campbell NR01)
 Net radiation
 23 m Radiometer
 (Campbell Scientific Inc, REBS Q*7.1)
 PPFD (incoming)

 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse 
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 0, 5, 10,15, 20  m Platinum resistant thermometer and 
 capacitive  hygrometer (HMP45C, Vaisala)
 Humidity 0, 5, 10,15, 20  m Platinum resistant thermometer and
 capacitive  hygrometer (HMP45C, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5,  0.7, 0.9, 1.5 m  (under ground) Thermal couple (copper constant)
 Soil heat flux
 0.05 m Heat flux plate
 Soil water content 
 0.1, 0.3, 0.5,  0.7, 0.9 m  (three points) Capacitance Probe (EnviroSMARTTM, v1.2)
 Wind speed
 20 m 
 Wind Monitor (R.M. Young 05103 )
 Wind direction
 20 m Wind Monitor (R.M. Young 05103 )
 Barometric pressure
 23 m
 Barometric Pressure Sensor (Campbell, 092)
 Precipitation 20 m, Ground  (six points) Rain Gauge (Campbell Scientific Inc,
 0, 5, 10, 15, 20  m Close path (LI-COR, LI-820)
 Lysimeter Decagon Devices Inc, Gee Passive  Capillary (-0.5 m)
 Through fall Rain Gauge (six points )
 Sapflow Thermal dissipation (eight)
 Soil respiration Home made chamber
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 From August 2006 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2008 - 2016 in AsiaFlux Database
 Ming-Hsu Li (mli [at] cc.ncu.edu.tw)
 Graduate Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences,
 National  Central University, Taiwan
 No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
 Tel: +886-3-4227151 ext.65691  Fax: +886-3-4222894
 URL: http://hydro.ihs.ncu.edu.tw/index.html

Yi-Ying Chen (yiyingchen [at] gate.sinica.edu.tw)
 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
 No.128, Section 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan
 Tel: +886-2-2787-1900  Fax: +886-2-2787-1924


 Tower, Electrical power (DC solar energy), Facilities for communication  (GPRS modem ), Accommodation (up to 30 persons )

Research Fund

 National Science Council (NSC96-2116-M-008-004; NSC99-2116-M- 008-021; NSC100-2116-M-008-003; MOST104-2116-M-008-018) 


Chen, Y.Y.*, Li, M.H., 2016. Quantifying Rainfall Interception Loss of a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in Central Taiwan, Water, 8(1)148, doi:10.3390/w8010014.

Chen, Y.Y., Li, M.H.*, 2012. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain, Terrstrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol.24 No.1, i, doi: 10.3319/TAO.2012.05.02.01(Hy). link

Chen, Y.Y., Chu, C.R., Li, M.H.*, 2012. A Semiparametric Multivariate Gapfilling Model for Eddy Covariance Fluxes: Estimating Evapotranspiration of a Subtropical Seasonal Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest as An Example, Journal of Hydrology, Vol.468-469, pp.101-110, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.08.026. link