SAP: Sapporo forest meteorology research site

General site detail (updated 22 May 2009)
 Site name
 Sapporo forest meteorology research site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position 42º 59' 12.609"N, 141º 23'07.036"E 
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Elevation 180 m above sea level
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Slope 0 - 7 degree 
 Terrain type
 Gentle slope
 Area 80 ha
 Fetch 500 to 1500 m
 Climate Cool temperate
 (Snow-fully humid-warm summer [Dfb])
 Mean annual air temperature
 7.2 degreeC 
 Mean annual precipitation
 933 mm 
 Vegetation type
 Deciduous broadleaved forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Japanese white birch(Betula platyphylla) , 
 Mizunara oak(Quercus mongolica)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Sasa bamboo (Sasa kurilensis and Sasa  senanensis)
 Canopy height
 20 m
 Age approx.100 years
 LAI Max.4(1999 to 2003) ; N/A(wind damage; 2004 to  present)
 Soil type

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open- (CO2 flux, latent heat flux) 
 Closed-path system (COflux)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3T, Prove TR-61C KAIJO, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3T Probe TR-61C, KAIJO, Japan)
 Platinum resistance thermometer 
 (HMP45A, VAISALA, Finland)
 Water vapor
 Open-path (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 Bandpass (HMP45A, VAISALA, Finland)
 CO2 Open-path (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 Closed-path (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 28 m
 Sampling frequency
 5 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DRM2a, TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 41.3 m Pyranometer (CM6F, Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 39.2 m Pyranometer (CM6F, Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 41.3 m Infrared radiometer with fan (PIR, Eppley, USA)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 39.2 m Infrared radiometer (PIR, Eppley, USA)
 Net radiation
 39.2 m Net radiometer (Q*7, REBS, USA)
 PPFD (incoming)
 41.3 m Quantum sensor (LI-190SA, LI-COR, USA)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 39.2 m Quantum sensor (LI-190SA, LI-COR, USA)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 33.5, 29.6,  25.8, 20.1, 16.3, 10.5, 2.7m Platinum resistance thermometer  (HMP45D,VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 33.5, 29.6,  25.8, 20.1, 16.3, 10.5, 2.7m Capacitive hygrometer
 (HMP45D, VAISALA, Finland)
 Soil temperature
 0.02, 0.05, 0.1,  0.2, 0.4, 0.8m Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 0.02 m
 Heat flux plate(MF-81,EKO,Japan)
 Soil water 
 0.07, 0.15,  0.45, 0.75m  TDR (CS-615, Campbell, USA)
 Wind speed
 33.5, 29.6,  25.8, 20.1, 16.3, 10.5, 2.7m Windmill anemometer(CYG-5103, YOUNG, USA)
 Wind direction
 41.3 m Vane (A-802, YOKOGAWA, Japan)
 28,1.5 m Barometer (PTB-210 at 28m and PTB101 at  1.5m, VAISALA, Finland)
 Precipitation 1.8 m Tipping bucket raingauge
 29.6, 25.8,  20.1, 16.3,  10.5, 2.7m Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis Occasionally
 Ecological investigation
 Tree heights, stand density, diameter,
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
  August 1999 to September 2003  and June 2004 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Katsumi Yamanoi (yamanoi [at]
 Yasuko Mizoguchi (pop128 [at]
 Hokkaido research center Forestry and Forest Products Researh  Institute
 7 Hitsujigaoka,Toyohira, Sapporo,Hokkaido 062-8516, Japan
 Tel: +81-11-590-5528 Fax: +81-11-851-4167
 Kenzo Kitamura (kitamu93 [at]
 Yuichiro Nakai (nakaiyui [at]
 Department of meteorological Environment Forestry and Forest  Products Researh Institute
 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
 Tel:+81-298-873-3211 Fax:+81-298-874-3720
Calibration Information
 Closed-path CO2 analyzers were calibrated against COstandard  gasses once a day.
 Tower, Electrical power (100V AC 50Hz)
Research Fund
 Research grant #199903 (1999-2002) of the Forestry and Forest  Products Research Institute

 RR2002 (2002-2006) of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science  and Technology

 Research Fund (Evaluation, Adaptation and Mitigation of Global  Warming in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries:Research and  Development) by Ministry of  Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of  Japan Grant-in-Aid for Scientific  Research  #193800950017 of JSPS 
 Global Environment Research  Account for National Institutes of  Ministry of the Environment Other  Information
Other Information
 The forest around the tower received severe damage by the typhoon in  September, 2003. Afterwards, the overturned trees have been left in the  state of the nature. The observation was restarted in June, 2004.
 Nakai Y., Kitamura K., Suzuki S. and Abe S. (2003) Year-long carbon  dioxde exchange above a broadleaf deciduous forest in Sapporo,  Northern Japan. Tellus, 55B, 305-312.
 Watanabe T., Nakai Y., Kitamura K., Utsugi H., Tobita Hiroyuki.,  Ishizuka S. (2005) Scaling energy and CO2 fluxes from leaf to canopy  using a Multilayered Implementation for Natural canopy-environment  relations (MINCER). Phyton, 45, 353-360.

 Utsugi H., Tobita H, Maruyama Y. and Ishizuka M. (2005) Spatial and  Seasonal Variations in Leaf Mass per Area and Their Relationship to  Leaf Nitrogen in a Secondary Northern Hardwood Forest in Japan.  Phyton, 45, 245-251.

 Ishizuka S, Sakata T, Sawata S, et al. (2006) High potential for  increase in CO2 flux from forest soil surface due to global warming in  cooler areas of Japan. Annals of Forest Science, 63 (5), 537-546.

 Suzuki, S., Ishizuka, S., Kitamura, K., Yamanoi, K., Nakai, Y. (2006)  Continuous estimation of winter carbon dioxide efflux from the snow  surface in a deciduous broadleaf forest. Journal of Geophysical  Research, 111(D17), D17101.