NSS: National Institute of Livestock and Grassland  Science,
Nasu Research Station

General site detail (Updated 20 June 2008)
 Site name
 National Institute of Livestock and Grassland  Science,Nasu Research Station
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Senbonmatsu, Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan
 Position 36º 55' N, 139º 58' E
 Elevation 320 m above sea level
 Slope mostly horizontal
 Terrain type
 almost flat
 Area about 2.3 ha (Chemical fertilizer plot) and about 2.4  ha (Manure plot)
 Fetch about 64 m (Chemical fertilizer plot) and about 70 m  (Manure plot)
 Climate warm temperate, Cfa
 Mean annual air temperature
 12.0 deg C (1985-2000)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1561.0 mm (1971-2000)
 Vegetation type
 hay meadow
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), Italian lyegrass  (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 120 cm
 Age 6 years in 2008
 LAI -
 Soil type
 Medium and Coarse textured Brown Lowland soils  (Typic Dystrudepts)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System  Open-path system 
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Air temperature
  Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Water vapor
 NDIR (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 CO2 NDIR (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 Measurement height
 2.5 m (Chemical fertilizer plot) and 2.3 m (Manure plot)
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR23X (Campbell Scientific), CR1000 (Campbell Scientific)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 1.5 m Non ventilated radiometer
 (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 1.5 m  Non ventilated radiometer
 (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 1.5 m  Non ventilated radiometer
 (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 1.5 m  Non ventilated radiometer
 (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Net radiation
 1.5 m  Non ventilated radiometer
 (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 PPFD (incoming)
  1.5 m Quantum sensor (ML-020, EKO)
 PPFD (outgoing)
  1.5 m Quantum sensor (LI-190SA, Li-Cor)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 2.3 m Ventilated Pt resistance thermometer 
 (HMP-45A, Vaisala)
 Humidity 2.3 m 
 Capacitive hygrometer
 (HMP45A, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 -0.05, -0.1 m T-type thermocoupule
 (T-soil4, Meiwafosis
 Soil heat flux
 -0.02 to -0.03 m Soil heat sensor (MF-81, EKO)
 Soil water 
 -0.05, -0.1 m Dielectric aquameter (EC20, DECAGON)
 Wind speed
 2.3, 2.5 m 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Wind direction
 2.3, 2.5 m Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 1.3 m, 1.1 m Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Precipitation 0.54 m Rain gauge
 2.3, 2.5 m NDIR (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 Soil respiration
 Static closed chamber
 Methane (CH4) Static closed chamber (biweekly) 2004-
 Nitrous oxide (NO2) Static closed chamber (biweekly) 2004-
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from August 2004 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Yoshiki YAMAMOTO (yoshiki [at] affrc.go.jp)
 Shoji MATSUURA (shojim [at] affrc.go.jp)
 Seiji NAKAOKA (snakao [at] affrc.go.jp)
 Akinori MORI (amori [at] affrc.go.jp)
 National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science768  Senbonmatsu, Nasushiobara, Tochigi, 329-2793, Japan
 TEL: +81-287-37-7807 FAX: +81-287-36-6629
 Calibration Information
 NDIRs were calibrated every year with standard CO2 gasses and a dew  point generator (LI-610, Li-Cor)

 2.5 m (Chemical fertilizer plot) and 2.3 m (Manure plot) high tower, 
 AC 100V

Research Fund
 Research grants from Racing and Livestock Association organized by  Japan Grassland Agriculture & Forage Seed Association for the  Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation Project in Japanese  Grasslands

Other Information
 Chemical fertilizer plot and manure plot were established in August  2004. Grasses were harvested four times per year.Chemical fertilizer  and manure application. The grasslands were renovated in September  2007.[Chemical fertilizer plot] Chemical fertilizer: 198-209 kg N ha-1,  [Manure plot] Manure: 15-32 FM t ha-1, Chemical fertilizer: 156-210 kg  N ha-1