General site detail (Updated 16 June 2008)
 Site name
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Laoshan Area of Maoershan Experimental Forest  Farm,Northeast Forestry University,Harbin,  northeast China, People’s Republic of China
 Position 45º 16'43.0" N, 127º 34'42.2" E (WGS84)
 Elevation 340 m a.s.l. 
 Slope 5-6 degree
 Terrain type
 Slope of mountain
 Area 5-6 ha
 Fetch 50, 70, 160 and more than 200 m in the west,  South, North and East direction, respectively
 Climate Cool temperate
 Mean annual air temperature
 2.8 ºC
 Mean annual precipitation
 724 mm
 Vegetation type
 Larch forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Larix gmelinii
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Ulmus propinqua, Corylus heterophylla, Lonicera  ruprechtiana, Syringa mandshurica, Rubus  sachalinensis, Sorbaria solbifolia, Acanthopanax  senticosus, and Aralia elata (Wang et al., 2008)
 Canopy height
 18 m
 Age 39 (Planted in 1969)
 LAI 2.5 m2 m-2
 Soil type
 Dark brown forest soil, which is fertile and mesic  Seasonally-frozen ground

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed-path system
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (SAT-550, KAIJO)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (SAT-550, KAIJO)
 Water vapor
 Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7000, LI-COR)
 CO2 Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7000, LI-COR)
 Measurement height
 29 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR 23X
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 21 m Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 21 m Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 21 m Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 21 m Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
 Net radiation
 21 m Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
 PPFD (incoming)
 21,1 m Quantum sensor (PAR-02, PREDE)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 21 m Quantum sensor (PAR-02, PREDE)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 21, 14 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (CVS-HMP-450, Vaisala)
 Humidity 21, 14 m 
 Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (CVS-HMP-450, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 5,10, 20, 50 cm Platinum resistance thermometer
 (C-PTG-30, CLIMATEC, Japan)
 Soil heat flux
 5 cm 
 Heat flux plate (MF-81, Eko, Japan)
 Soil water 
 5, 20 cm 
 TDR sensor (CS615-L100, Campbell)
 Wind speed
 29 m 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-  thermometer (SAT-550, KAIJO)
 Wind direction
 29 m Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-  thermometer (SAT-550, KAIJO)
 3 m Barometer (CS105, Vaisala)
 Precipitation 22 m Tipping-bucket rainguage with heater 
 (YG-52202, R. M. Young)
 29 m Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7000, LI-COR)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis Measured
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 May 2002 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 [Flux] Huimin Wang (wanghm [at]
 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources  Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Anwai  Street, Beijing 100101, China
 Phone: +86-10-6488-8896 Fax: : +86-10-6488-8896
 Nobuko Saigusa (n.saigusa [at]
 Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for  Environmental Studies16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
 Phone: +81-29-850-2517, 2976 Fax: +81-29-858-2645
 [Soil respiration, Photosynthesis]
 Takayoshi Koike (tkoike [at]
 Hokkaido University
 Other [Ecological Investigation]
 Yoichi Kanazawa (yknzw [at] Kobe University
 Tower, Electrical power(AC)
 Research Fund
 Global Environment Research Fund S-1 (FY2003-2006) by Ministry of  Environment, Japan
 1. Huimin Wang, Nobuko Saigusa, Yuangang Zu, Wenjie Wang, Susumu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kondo. 2008. Carbon fluxes and their responses to environmental variables in a Dahurian larch forest ecosystem in northeast China. Journal of Forestry Research, 19: 1-10.

2. Huimin Wang, Yuangang Zu, Nobuko Saigusa, Susumu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kondo, Fengjian Yang, Wenjie Wang. 2005. CO2, water vapor and energy fluxes in a larch forest in northeast China. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 60 (5), 549-552.

3. Huimin Wang, Nobuko Saigusa, Yuan-Gang Zu, Wen-Jie Wang, Susumu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kondo. 2005. Annual carbon sequestration by a larch forest in northeast China. Proceedings of the International Conference on Research Highlights and Vanguard Technology on Environmental Engineering in Agricultural Systems, 267-271, Kanazawa, Japan.

4. Huimin Wang, Nobuko Saigusa, Yuangang Zu, Susumu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kondo, Fengjian Yang, Wenjie Wang, Takashi Hirano, Yasumi Fujinuma. 2005. Response of CO2 flux to environmental variables in two larch forest ecosystems in East Asia. Phyton - Annales Rei Botanicae, 45(4), 339-346.