LHP:Lambir Hills National Park

General site detail (Updated 13 April 2023)
 Site name
 Lambir Hills National Park
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location 30 km south of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia
 Position 4°12'3.6"N, 114°02'20.7"E
 Elevation 200 m a.s.l.
 Slope <5°
 Terrain type
 Gentle slope
 Area 52 ha
 Fetch 400 m (southeast) or longer
 Climate Tropical rainforest climate (Af)
 Mean annual air temperature
 26.2 ℃ (2010-2019)
 Mean annual precipitation
 2751 mm (2010-2019)
 Vegetation type
 Mixed dipterocarp and tropical heath forest
 Dominant species (Overstory)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 40-50 m
 Age -
 LAI 6.2 m2 m-2 in 2002 (LAI-2000, Li-Cor)
 Soil type
 Red-yellow podzolic (Malaysian classification) or Ultisols (United States Department of Agriculture Soil Taxonomy)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system 
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Water vapor
 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 CO2 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 Measurement height
 60.2 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min.
 Data logger
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar
 radiation (incoming)
 85.8 m
 Solar radiometer (MS401, EKO, Japan)
 Global solar 
 radiation (outgoing)
 49.5 m (100 m
 south of the  crane)
 Solar radiometer (CM06E, Kipp & Zonen)
 85.8 m
 Infrared radiometer (Model PIR, Epply)
 49.5 m (100 m
 south of the  crane)
 Infrared radiometer (Model PIR, Epply)
 Net radiation
 - Calculated
 PPFD (incoming)
 85.8 m
 Quantum sensor (MIJ-14, Environmental
 Measurement Japan, Japan)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 - -
 Direct / diffuse
 - Calculated
 Direct / diffuse
 - -
 Air temperature
 0.5, 5, 13, 25,
 32, 44, 60, 76 m
 76 m: Ventilated psychrometer (MS020S,
 EKO, Japan)
 60 m: Thermohygrograph (HMP155D, Vaisala)
 Others: Temperature/relative humidity data logger (HOBO Pro v2, Onset)
 Humidity 0.5, 5, 13, 25,
 32, 44, 60, 76 m
 76 m: Thermohygrograph (HMP35A, Vaisala)
 60 m: Thermohygrograph (HMP155D, Vaisala)
 Others: Temperature/relative humidity data logger (HOBO Pro v2, Onset)
 Soil temperature
 0.02, 0.1, 0.2,
 0.5 m
 Copper-constantan thermocouples
 Soil heat flux
 0.01 m
 Heat flux plate (MF-81, EKO, Japan)
 Soil water content 
 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1 m
 TDR (CS616, Campbell Scientific)
 Wind speed
 60.2, 77.5,
 93.2 m
 Cup-anemometer (AC750, Makino, Japan)
 Wind direction
 77.5 m Wind vane (VR036, Makino, Japan)
 Barometric pressure
 60.2 m
 Pressure sensor (PTB110, Vaisala)
 Precipitation 85.5 m Tipping bucket rain gauge
 (RS102, Ogasawara Keiki, Japan)
 0.5, 5, 13, 25,
 32, 44 m
 CO2 infrared gas analyzer (LI-820, Li-Cor)

Soil respiration
 Measurement method
 Reference for the method
 Ohashi et al., 2008; Biogeochemistry
 Measuring system
 Closed dynamic chamber method
 IRGA LI-6400-09
 Flow control
 Chamber type
 Closed dynamic chamber
 Chamber size
 962 cm3 in volume (72 cm2 in area)
 Number of chambers
 One (but it was manually relocated to 25 to >100 locations at each campaign)
 Measuring intervals
 Two to six months
 Is the ground covered by snow
 in winter?
 Original data
 Temperature and air pressure
 Soil temperature at the depth of 10 cm

 Photosynthesis Portable IRGA (LI-6400, Li-Cor)
 Sap flow Heat dissipation method (Granier-type sensor)
 Ecological investigation
 Tree inventory, Biometric observations for  the 4-ha plot every year
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 2001-2003, 2009-2019
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2009-2019 in AsiaFlux Database
 Tomo'omi Kumagai (tomoomikumagai[at]gmail.com)
 Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences,
 The University of Tokyo
 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
 TEL: +81-3-5841-8226
 Yoshiaki Hata (yoshiakihata0806[at]gmail.com)
 Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences,
 The University of Tokyo
 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
 TEL: +81-3-5841-5214
 Canopy crane, Electrical power (220V AC), Solar cell
Research Fund
 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) of the
 Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
 The Global Centers of Excellence Program (GCOE) of the Japan  
 Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
Calibration Information
 Calibration or replacement of the open-path analyzer was performed
 approximately once a year.
Nagai, S., Katsumata, C., Miura, T., Tsutsumida, N., Ichie, T., Kotani, A., Nakagawa, M., Khoon, K. L., Kobayashi, H., Kumagai, T., Tei, S., Pungga, R. a. S., Yamada, T., Kameda, A., Yanagisawa, M., Nasahara, K. N., Muraoka, H., Ichii K. and Tokumoto, Y. (2023) Perspective: Improving the accuracy of plant phenology observations and land-cover and land-use detection by optical satellite remote-sensing in the Asian tropics. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 6, 1106723, doi:10.3389/ffgc.2023.1106723.

Katsuura, H., Matsuo, N., Sakai, S., Kawahara, K., Ichie, T., Kenzo, T., Dulce, C.A., Kume, T., Nakagawa, M. (2022) Water uptake patterns of tropical canopy trees in Borneo: Species-specific and temporal variation and relationships with aboveground traits. Tree Physiology, 42(10), 1928-1942, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpac061

Katayama, A., Endo, I., Makita, N., Matsumoto, K., Kume, T., Ohashi, M. (2021) Vertical variation in mass and CO2 efflux of litter from the ground to the 40-m high canopy in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 311(15), 108659.

Ueyama, M., Ichii, K., Kobayashi, H., Kumagai, T., Beringer, J., Merbold, L., Euskirchen, E., Hirano, T., Belelli Marchesini, L., Baldocchi, D., Saitoh, T., Mizoguchi, Y., Ono, K., Kim, J., Varlagin, A., Kang, M., Shimizu, T., Kosugi, Y., Bret-Harte, M., Machimura, T., Matsuura, Y., Ohta, T., Takagi, K., Takanashi, S. and Yasuda, Y. (2020) Inferring CO2 fertilization effect based on global monitoring land-atmosphere exchange with a theoretical model. Environmental Research Letters, 15(8), 084009, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab79e5.

Ushio, M., Osada, Y., Kumagai, T., Kume, T., Pungga, R. a. S., Nakashizuka, T., Itioka, T. and Sakai, S. (2020) Dynamic and synergistic influences of air temperature and rainfall on general flowering in a Bornean lowland tropical forest. Ecological Research, 35(1), 17-29, doi:10.1111/1440-1703.12057.

Yoshifuji, N., Kumagai, T., Ichie, T., Kume, T., Tateishi, M., Inoue, Y., Yoneyama, A. and Nakashizuka, T. (2020) Limited stomatal regulation of the largest-size class of Dryobalanops aromatica in a Bornean tropical rainforest in response to artificial soil moisture reduction. Journal of Plant Research, 133(2), 175-191, doi:10.1007/s10265-019-01161-3.

Endo, I., Kume, T., Kho, L.K., Katayama, A., Makita, N., Ikeno, H., Ohashi, M. (2019) Spatial and temporal patterns of root dynamics in Bornean tropical rainforest: Using the root scanner method. Plant and Soil, 443, 323-335, doi:10.1007/s11104-019-04203-w.

Ohashi, M., Makita, N., Katayama, A., Kume, T., Matsumoto, K., Kumagai, T., Endo, I., and Kho, L.K. (2019) Characteristics of root decomposition based on in-situ experiments in a tropical rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia: Impacts of root diameter and soil biota. Plant and Soil, 436(1-2), 439-448, doi:10.1007/s11104-018-03929-3.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Nakagawa, M. (2019) Vertical variation in wood CO2 efflux is not uniformly related to height: Measurement across various species and sizes of Bornean tropical rainforest trees. Tree Physiology 39(6), 1000-1008, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpz022.

Nakagawa, M., Ushio, M., Kume, T., Nakashizuka, T. (2019) Seasonal and long-term patterns in litterfall in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Ecological Research 34(1), 31-39, doi:10.1111/1440-1703.1003.

Kume, T., Ohashi, M., Makita, N., Kho, L.K., Katayama, A., Endo, I., Matsumoto, K., Ikeno, H. (2018) Image analysis procedure for the optical scanning of fine-root dynamics: Errors depending on the observer and root-viewing window size. Tree Physiology 38(12), 1927-1938, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpy124.

Kurita, N., Horikawa, M., Kanamori, H., Fujinami, H., Kumagai, T., Kume, T. and Yasunari, T. (2018) Interpretation of EI Niño-Southern Oscillation-related precipitation anomalies in north-western Borneo using isotopic tracers. Hydrological Processes, 32(14), 2176-2186, doi:10.1002/hyp.13164.

Inoue, Y., Ichie, T., Kenzo, T., Yoneyama, A., Kumagai, T. and Nakashizuka, T. (2017) Effects of rainfall exclusion on leaf gas exchange traits and osmotic adjustment in mature canopy trees of Dryobalanopsaromatica (Dipterocarpaceae) in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. Tree Physiology, 37(10), 1301-1311, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpx053.

Takahashi, A., Kumagai, T., Kanamori, H., Fujinami, H., Hiyama, T. and Hara, M. (2017) Impact of tropical deforestation and forest degradation on precipitation over Borneo Island. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18(11), 2907-2922, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-17-0008.1.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Ohashi, M., Matsumoto, K., Nakagawa, M., Saito, T., Kumagai, T. and Otsuki, K. (2016) Characteristics of wood CO2 efflux in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 220, 190-199, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.01.140.

Ohashi, M., Kume, T., Yoshifuji, N., Khoon, L.K., Nakashizuka, T. (2015) The effects of an induced short-term drought period on the spatial variations in soil respiration measured around emergent trees in a typical bornean tropical forest, Malaysia. Plant and Soil 387, 337-349, doi:10.1007/s11104-014-2303-6.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Komatsu, H., Ohashi, M., Matsumoto, K., Ichihashi, R., Kumagai, T. and Otsuki, K. (2014) Vertical variations in wood CO2 efflux for live emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Tree Physiology, 34(5), 503-512, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpu041.

Kobayashi, M., Yayoi, T., Tanaka, K., Kume, T., Diway, B., Shimizu, K. (2013) Mass flowering of the tropical tree Shorea beccariana was preceded by expression changes in flowering and drought-responsive genes. Molecular Ecology 22(18), 4767-4782, doi:10.111/mec.12344.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Komatsu, H., Saitoh, T. M., Ohashi, M., Nakagawa, M., Suzuki, M., Otsuki, K. and Kumagai, T. (2013) Carbon allocation in a Bornean tropical rainforest without dry seasons. Journal of Plant Research, 126(4), 505-515, doi:10.1007/s10265-012-0544-0.
Kumagai, T., Kanamori, H. and Yasunari, T. (2013) Deforestation-induced reduction in rainfall. Hydrological Processes, 27(25), 3811-3814, doi:10.1002/hyp.10060.

Kumagai, T. and Kume, T. (2012) Influences of diurnal rainfall cycle on CO2 exchange over Bornean tropical rainforests. Ecological Modelling, 246, 91-98, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.07.014.

Kumagai, T. and Porporato, A. (2012) Drought-induced mortality of a Bornean tropical rainforest amplified by climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117, G02032, doi:10.1029/2011JG001835.

Kumagai, T. and Porporato, A. (2012) Strategies of a Bornean tropical rainforest water use as a function of rainfall regime: isohydric or anisohydric? Plant, Cell and Environment, 35(1), 61-71, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02428.x.

Kume, T., Tanaka, N., Kuraji, K., Komatsu, H., Yoshifuji, N., Saitoh, T. M., Suzuki, M. and Kumagai, T. (2011) Ten-year evapotranspiration estimates in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151(9), 1183-1192, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.04.005.

Kumagai, T., Yoshifuji, N., Tanaka, N., Suzuki, M. and Kume, T. (2009) Comparison of soil moisture dynamics between a tropical rainforest and a tropical seasonal forest in Southeast Asia: impact of seasonal and year-to-year variations in rainfall. Water Resources Research, 45, W04413, doi:10.1029/2008WR007307.

Fisher, J. B., Malhi, Y., Bonal, D., da Rocha, H. R., de Araujo, A. C., Gamo, M., Goulden, M. L., Hirano, T., Huete, A. R., Kondo, H., Kumagai, T., Loescher, H., Miller, S., Nobre, A. D., Nouvellon, Y., Oberbauer, S., Panuthai, S., Roupsard, O., Saleska, S., Tanaka, K., Tanaka. N., Tu, K. P. and von Randow, C. (2009) The land-atmosphere water flux in the tropics. Global Change Biology, 15(11), 2694-2714, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01813.x.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Komatsu, H., Ohashi, M., Nakagawa, M., Yamashita, M., Otsuki, K., Suzuki, M. and Kumagai, T. (2009) Effect of forest structure on the spatial variation in soil respiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(10), 1666-1673, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.05.007.

Ohashi, M., Kumagai, T., Kume, T., Gyokusen, K., Saitoh, T. M. and Suzuki, M. (2008) Characteristics of soil CO2 efflux variability in an aseasonal tropical rainforest in Borneo Island. Biogeochemistry, 90(3), 275-289, doi:10.1007/s10533-008-9253-0.

Kume, T., Komatsu, H., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M. (2008) Less than 20-minute time lags between transpiration and stem sap flow in emergent trees in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 1181-1189, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.02.010.

Kume, T., Manfroi, O. J., Suzuki, M., Tanaka, K., Kuraji, K., Nakagawa, M., Komatsu, H. and Kumagai, T. (2008) Estimation of vertical profiles of leaf drying times after rainfall within a Bornean tropical rainforest. Hydrological Processes, 22(18), 3689-3696, doi:10.1002/hyp.6972.

Kume, T., Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K., Tanaka, N., Horiuchi, T., Suzuki, M. and Kumagai, T. (2008) Estimation of canopy water storage capacity from sap flow measurements in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Journal of Hydrology, 352(3-4), 288-295, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.01.020.

Kumagai, T., Ichie, T., Yoshimura, M., Yamashita, M., Kenzo, T., Saitoh, T. M., Ohashi, M., Suzuki, M., Koike, T. and Komatsu, H. (2006) Modeling CO2 exchange over a Bornean tropical rain forest using measured vertical and horizontal variations in leaf-level physiological parameters and leaf area densities. Journal of Geophysical Research -Atmospheres, 111, D10107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006676.

Kume, T., Kuraji, K., Yoshifuji, N., Morooka, Y., Sawano, S., Chong, L., Suzuki, M. (2006) Estimation of canopy drying time after rainfall using sap flow measurements in an emergent tree in lowland mixed-dipterocarp forest. Hydrological Processes 20, 565-578, doi:10.1002/hyp.5924.

Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Tanaka, N., Kume, T., Nakagawa, M., Kumagai, T. and Nakashizuka, T. (2006) Comparison of conventionally observed interception evaporation in a 100-m2 subplot with that estimated in a 4-ha area of the same Bornean lowland tropical forest. Journal of Hydrology, 329(1-2), 329-349, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.02.020.

Kumagai, T., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Takahashi, H., Manfroi, O. J., Morooka, T., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Yasunari, T. and Komatsu, H. (2005) Annual water balance and seasonality of evapotranspiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 128(1-2), 81-92, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.08.006.

Kumagai, T., Katul, G. G., Porporato, A., Saitoh, T. M., Ohashi, M., Ichie, T. and Suzuki, M. (2004) Carbon and water cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforest under current and future climate scenarios. Advances in Water Resources, 27(12), 1135-1150, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2004.10.002.

Kumagai, T., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Morooka, T., Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K. and Suzuki, M. (2004) Transpiration, canopy conductance and the decoupling coefficient of a lowland mixed dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Borneo: dry spell effects. Journal of Hydrology, 287(1-4), 237-251, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.10.002.

Kumagai, T., Katul, G. G., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Manfroi, O. J., Morooka, T., Ichie, T., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M. and Porporato, A. (2004) Water cycling in a Bornean tropical rain forest under current and projected precipitation scenarios. Water Resources Research, 40(1), W01104, doi:10.1029/2003WR002226.

Kumagai, T., Kuraji, K., Noguchi, H., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, K. and Suzuki, M. (2001) Vertical profiles of environmental factors within tropical rainforest, Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Forest Research, 6(4), 257-264.