LHP:Lambir Hills National Park

General site detail (Updated 15 September 2010)
 Site name
 Lambir Hills National Park
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location 30km south of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia
 Position 4°12'N, 114°02'E
 Elevation 200m a.s.l.
 Slope Gentle slope (<5°)
 Terrain type
 Area -
 Fetch -
 Climate Tropical rain forest climate
 Mean annual air temperature
 27 deg 
 Mean annual precipitation
 2740 mm 
 Vegetation type
 Mixed dipterocarp forest and tropical heathy forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 40-50 m
 Age -
 LAI 6.2 m2 m-2 (LAI-2000, Li-Cor)
 Soil type
 Andisol (Soil Survey Staff, 2006)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System  Open-path system 
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell, USA),  Vaisala sensor (HMP45C, Campbell)
 Air temperature
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell, USA)
 Water vapor
 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7500, Li-Cor), 
 Vaisala sensor (HMP45C, Campbell)
 CO2 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-7500, Li-Cor)
 Measurement height
 60.2 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR5000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 85.8 m (on  crane) Solar radiometer (MS401, EKO)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 100 m
 (south of the  crane)
 Solar radiometer (CM06E, Kipp & Zonen)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 85.8 m (on  crane) Infrared radiometer (Model PIR, Epply
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 100 m
 (south of the  crane)
 Infrared radiometer (Model PIR, Epply)
 Net radiation
 - Calculated
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 - Calculated
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 1.5, 6.5, 11.5,  21.5,  31.5,  41.5 m Ventilated sensors and data loggers
 (H0803208 and RS1, Onset)
 Humidity 1.5, 6.5, 11.5,  21.5,  31.5,  41.5 m  Ventilated sensors and data loggers
  (H0803208 and RS1, Onset)
 Soil temperature
 2, 10, 20, and  50 cm Thermocouples
 Soil heat flux
 10 cm 
 MF81 (EKO, Japan)
 Soil water 
 10, 20, 50 cm
 TDR (CS615, Campbell Scientific)
 Wind speed
 60.2, 77.5,  93.2m Cup-anemometer (AC750, Makino)
 Wind direction
 77.5 m Wind vane (VR036, Makino)
 Precipitation 85.5 m Tipping bucket rain gauge
 (RS102, Ogasawara Keiki)
 1.5, 65, 11.5,  21.5, 31.5, 41.5  m CO2 infrared gas analyzer (LI-820, Li-Cor)
 Soil respiration
 (6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber, Li-Cor)
 Photosynthesis Portable IRGA (LI-6400, Li-Cor)
 Sap flow Heat dissipation method
 (Granier-type sensor)
 Ecological investigation
 Tree inventory / Biometric observations for  the 4-ha plot every year
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 2001-2003, 2010-present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Tomo'omi Kumagai (tomoomikumagai [at] gmail.com)
 Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University F3-1  (200) Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya Aichi 464-8601, Japan
 TEL. +81-52-789-3478 / FAX +81-52-789-3436
 Kazuho Matsumoto (kazuhom [at] agr.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)
 Laboratory of Silviculture, Department of Subtropical Agro-  Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of the  Ryukyus
Kumagai, T., Yoshifuji, N., Tanaka, N., Suzuki, M. and Kume, T. (2009) Comparison of soil moisture dynamics between a tropical rainforest and a tropical seasonal forest in Southeast Asia: impact of seasonal and year-to-year variations in rainfall. Water Resources Research, 45, W04413, doi:10.1029/2008WR007307.

Fisher, J. B., Malhi, Y., Bonal, D., da Rocha, H. R., de Araujo, A. C., Gamo, M., Goulden, M. L., Hirano, T., Huete, A. R., Kondo, H., Kumagai, T., Loescher, H., Miller, S., Nobre, A. D., Nouvellon, Y., Oberbauer, S., Panuthai, S., Roupsard, O., Saleska, S., Tanaka, K., Tanaka. N., Tu, K. P. and von Randow, C. (2009) The land-atmosphere water flux in the tropics. Global Change Biology, 15(11), P2694-2714.

Katayama, A., Kume, T., Komatsu, H., Ohashi, M., Nakagawa, M., Yamashita, M., Otsuki, K., Suzuki, M. and Kumagai, T. (2009) Effect of forest structure on the spatial variation in soil respiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(10), P1666-1673.

Ohashi, M., Kumagai, T., Kume, T., Gyokusen, K., Saitoh, T. M. and Suzuki, M. (2008) Characteristics of soil CO2 efflux variability in an aseasonal tropical rainforest in Borneo Island. Biogeochemistry, 90(3), P275-289.

Kume, T., Manfroi, O. J., Suzuki, M., Tanaka, K., Kuraji, K., Nakagawa, M., Komatsu, H. and Kumagai, T. (2008) Estimation of vertical profiles of leaf drying times after rainfall within a Bornean tropical rainforest. Hydrological Processes, 22(18), P3689-3696.

Kume, T., Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K., Tanaka, N., Horiuchi, T., Suzuki, M. and Kumagai, T. (2008) Estimation of canopy water storage capacity from sap flow measurements in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Journal of Hydrology, 352(3-4), P288-295.

Kumagai, T., Ichie, T., Yoshimura, M., Yamashita, M., Kenzo, T., Saitoh, T. M., Ohashi, M., Suzuki, M., Koike, T. and Komatsu, H. (2006) Modeling CO2 exchange over a Bornean tropical rain forest using measured vertical and horizontal variations in leaf-level physiological parameters and leaf area densities. Journal of Geophysical Research -Atmospheres, 111, D10107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006676.

Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Tanaka, N., Kume, T., Nakagawa, M., Kumagai, T. and Nakashizuka, T. (2006) Comparison of conventionally observed interception evaporation in a 100-m2 subplot with that estimated in a 4-ha area of the same Bornean lowland tropical forest. Journal of Hydrology, 329(1-2), P329-349.

Kumagai, T., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Takahashi, H., Manfroi, O. J., Morooka, T., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Yasunari, T. and Komatsu, H. (2005) Annual water balance and seasonality of evapotranspiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 128(1-2), P81-92.

Kumagai, T., Katul, G. G., Porporato, A., Saitoh, T. M., Ohashi, M., Ichie, T. and Suzuki, M. (2004) Carbon and water cycling in a Bornean tropical rainforest under current and future climate scenarios. Advances in Water Resources, 27(12), P1135-1150.

Kumagai, T., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Morooka, T., Manfroi, O. J., Kuraji, K. and Suzuki, M. (2004) Transpiration, canopy conductance and the decoupling coefficient of a lowland mixed dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Borneo: dry spell effects. Journal of Hydrology, 287(1-4), P237-251.

Kumagai, T., Katul, G. G., Saitoh, T. M., Sato, Y., Manfroi, O. J., Morooka, T., Ichie, T., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M. and Porporato, A. (2004) Water cycling in a Bornean tropical rain forest under current and projected precipitation scenarios. Water Resources Research, 40(1), W01104, 10.1029/2003WR002226.

Kumagai, T., Kuraji, K., Noguchi, H., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, K. and Suzuki, M. (2001) Vertical profiles of environmental factors within tropical rainforest, Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Forest Research, 6(4), P257-264.