KZW: Karuizawa

General site detail (Updated 30 April 2010)
 Site name
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Karuizawa, Nagano, Japan
 Position 36º 24' N, 138º 35' E
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS: EMPEX FG-  530 and MAP)
 Elevation 1380 m above sea level
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS: EMPEX FG-  530 and MAP)
 Slope 3 degree
 Terrain type
 Area 150 ha
 Fetch 500-1000 m 
 Climate Cool temperate  [Dfb] 
 Mean annual air temperature
 6.6degC (2002-2005)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1198mm (1971 - 2000, Karuizawa weather station)
 Vegetation type
 Mixed deciduous forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Japanese mountain birch (Betula ermanii Cham.)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 without Bamboo grass
 Canopy height
 16 - 18 m
 Age 60 years in 2010
 LAI Max. 5.7  (estimated from litter collection)
 Soil type
 Volcanogenous regosol

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open- and closed-path system (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (USA-1, Metek GnbH, Germany)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer (USA-1,  Metek GnbH, Germany), Platinum resistance thermometer  (HMP45A, VAISALA, Finland)
 Water vapor
 Open-path (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 CO2 Open- and Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers 
 (LI-7500 and LI-7000, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 28 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DRM3_Mk2, TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data
 Scintillometer  SLS40A, Scintec AG., Germany
 (86m path length, 28, 22m height)

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 28 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan,; CNR-1,  Kipp &  Zonen, Netherlands)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 28 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan,; CNR-1,  Kipp &  Zonen, Netherlands)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 28 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan,;CNR-1,  Kipp &  Zonen, Netherlands)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 28 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan,;CNR-1,  Kipp &  Zonen, Netherlands)
 Net radiation
 28 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan,;CNR-1,  Kipp &  Zonen, Netherlands)
 PPFD (incoming)
 28, 2 m Quantum sensor
 (PAR-01L, Prede, Japan)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 28 m Quantum sensor
 (PAR-01L, Prede, Japan)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 28, 21, 13.6,  8.5, 3 m Platinum resistance thermometers and  capacitive hygrometers
 (HMP45A, Vaisala, Finland)
 Humidity 28, 21, 13.6,  8.5, 3 m Platinum resistance thermometers and  capacitive hygrometers
 (HMP45A, Vaisala, Finland)
 Soil temperature
 -0.02, -0.05,  -0.2, -0.4, -0.6,  -0.8, -1.2 m Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 m TDR sensor (CS615, Campbell)
 Wind speed
 28, 24, 21, 17,  13.6,  8.5, 3 m Sonic anemometer (MA-130, Eko, Japan,  Windsonic, Gill, UK)
 Wind direction
 28, 24, 21, 17,  13.6,  8.5, 3 m Sonic anemometer (MA-130, Eko, Japan,  Windsonic, Gill, UK)
 3 m Barometer (PTB100, Vaisala, Finland)
 Precipitation 15 m Tipping-bucket rainguage (Davis, USA)
 28, 21, 13.6,  8.3, 3 m CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-7000 LI-COR, USA)
 Rain drop size distribution 15 m Laser Precipitation monitor (Thies, FRG)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis Occasionally
 Ecological investigation
 Tree heights, stand density, diameter, LAI  (estimated from litter fall)
 Oand SO2 profile 2004 - 2005
 Stable isotope of C in air layer, Organic  carbon contents of soil and soil water Occasionally
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from 2002 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Ko Nakaya (cow [at]
 Environmental Science  Research LaboratoryCentral Research Institute  of Electric Power Industry 1646 Abiko, Abiko, Chiba 270-1194, Japan  Tel:+81-4-7182-1181 Fax:+81-4-7183-5061
 Tower, Electrical power (100V AC 60Hz)
 Research Fund
 Personal research fund of Central Research Institute of Electric Power  Industry
Calibration Information
 The gain of CO2 of the closed-path analyzers were checked once a  hour by standard COgas of 400 ppmv and N2 gas that were  automatically controlled.
 Open-path analyzers were calibrated approximately once a year with  standard CO2 gases and a dew point generator (LI610, LI-COR).
 Other Information
 PI changed the site name (Kitasaku > Karuizawa) and site code (KTS >  KZW) on 14th June, 2007.
Nakaya K., Toyoda Y. (2009) Effect of leaf area changes on aerodynamic roughness over the forest canopy., CRIEPI report, V08033. [in Japanese]

Nakaya, K. (2008) Study of improvement on elvaluation method of energy and mass exchange between atmosphere and forest ecosystem. Memoirs of the Research Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University 29(2). 149-213. [in Japanese]

Nakaya K., Suzuki C., Kobayashi T., Ikeda H., Yasuike S. (2007) Spatial averaging effect on local flux measurement using a displaced-beam small aperture scintillometer above the forest canopy., Agric. For. Meteorol., 145(1-2): 97-109.

Nakaya, Ko, Suzuki, C., Kobayashi, T., Ikeda, H., Yasuike, S. (2006) Application of a displaced-beam small aperture scintillometer to a deciduous forest under unstable atmospheric conditions, Agric. For. Meteor., 136: 45-55.

Ikeda, H., Kobayashi, T., NAKAYA, K., Suzuki, C., Yasuike, S.(2003) Migration and Fixation of Organic Carbon in Vegetation - Forest soil System.,Goldschmidt Conference (Kurashiki, Japan). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(18) A167

Ikeda, H., T. Kobayashi ,K. Nakaya, M. Nashimoto, C. Suzuki , S. Yasuike (2002) Migration and Storage of Carbon in Vegetation - Forest Soil System in Japanese Mountainous Area. Proceeding of BIOGEOMON 2002, 103