KWG: Kawagoe forest meteorology research site

Gengeral site detail (Updated 10 September 2007)
 Site name
  Kawagoe forest meteorology research site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan
 Position 35º 52' 9.5" N, 139º 29' 25" E
 Elevation 26 m
 Slope 0 degree
 Terrain type
 Area 40 ha
 Fetch 50-500 m
 Climate Warm temperate (Cfa)
 Mean annual air temperature
 15 degreeC
 Mean annual precipitation
 1300 mm
 Vegetation type
 deciduous broadleaved forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Konara oak (Quercus serrata Thunb.), Horn beam  (Carpinus laxiflora Blume), Cherry tree(Purunus  Jamasakura Sieb.)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 15 m
 Age Approx. 70 years
 LAI -
 Soil type
 Andosols (Kanto loam)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System closed-path system ( CO2 flux)
 Wind speed
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer  (DAT300, KAIJO, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer  (DAT300, KAIJO, Japan ), Platinum resistance thermometer  (HMP35D, VAISALA, Finland)
 Water vapor
 Capacitance hygrometer (HMP45D, Vaisala)
 CO2 closed-path (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 20 m
 Sampling frequency
 5 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DRM3b, TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 25 m Pyranometer (MR22, EKO,, Japan etc.)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 25 m  Pyranometer (MR22, EKO,, Japan etc.)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 25 m Infrared radiometer (PIR, Eppley, USA)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 25 m Infrared radiometer (PIR, Eppley, USA)
 Net radiation
 25 m Net radiometer (MF-11, EKO, Japan)
 PPFD (incoming)
 25, 2 m Quantum sensor (ML-020P, EKO, Japan)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 25.5, 21, 17.8, 16, 14, 12, 9, 5,  2.5 m Platinum resistance thermometer (HMP35D,  VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 25.5, 21, 17.8,  16, 14, 12, 9, 5,  2.5 m Capacitive hygrometer (HMP35D, VAISALA,  Finland) Psychrometer (MH-020L, EKO, Japan)
 Soil temperature
 0, 0.02, 0.05,  0.1, 0.25,  0.5  m Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 0.02 m 
 Heat flux plate
 Soil water 
 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 1  m TDR soil moisture sensor
 (TRIME, IMKO, Germany)
 Wind speed
 25.9, 21, 18, 16  m 3-cups anemometer
 (WM-30P, Ikeda, Japan)
 Wind direction
 25 m Vane (WD-16, Ikeda, Japan)
 2.0 m Capacitance barometer
 (PTB-100A, Vaisala, Finland))
 Precipitation 0.5 m Rain gage of 0.5mm/pulse
 (RT-5, Ikeda, Japan)
 16, 12, 8, 4 m Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis Occasionally
 Ecological investigation
 Tree heights, stand density, diameter
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 1996 - 2002
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Yukio Yasuda (yassan [at]
 Tohoku research center
 Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
 92-25 Nabeyashiki, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, lwate 020-0123, Japan
 Tel: +81-19-641-2150 Fax: +81-19-641-6747
 Tsutomu Watanabe (
 Institue of Low temperature Science,Hokkaido UniversityKita-19, 
 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan
 Tel:+81-11-706-5488 Fax:+81-11-706-5488
 [Soil respiration] Yasuko Mizoguchi (
 Department of meteorological EnvironmentForestry and Forest Products  Research Institute1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
 Tel:+81-298-873-3211 Fax:+81-298-874-3720
 Tower, Electrical power (100V AC 50Hz), telephone 
Research Fund
 Research grant #199903 (1999-2002) of the Forestry and Forest  Products Research Institute
Calibration Information
 CO2 analyzers were calibrated against COstandard gases twice a  day.
Y. Yasuda, T. Watanabe, Y. Ohtani, Y. Mizoguchi, M. Mano (2005) Quality control of flux data measured above a deciduous forest. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 60(5), 777-780.

Y. Yasuda, T. Watanabe, Y. Ohtani, Y. Mizoguchi (2005) A problem of eddy covariance-based evaluations of ecosystem respiration rate - Friction velocity correction in Intermittently turbulent conditions -. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 61(3), 177-187.

Y. Mizoguchi, Y.Ohtani, T. Watanabe (2005) Influence on soil temperature and soil moisture on forest floor CO2 efflux - Clarification of the effect of soil moisture using field data -. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 60(5), 761-764.

Y. Mizoguchi, Y. Ohtani, T. Watanabe, Y. Yasuda, M. Okano (2003) Long-term continuous measurement of CO2 efflux from a forest floor using dynamic closed chambers with automatic opening/closing capability, Japanese Journal of Ecology, 53(1), 1-12. (in Japanese with English abstract)

Y. Yasuda, T. Watanabe (2001) Comparative measurements of CO2 flux over a forest using closed-path and open-path CO2 analyzers. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 100, 191-208.

T. Watanabe, K. Yamanoi, Y. Yasuda (2000) Testing of the bandpass eddy covariance method for a long-term measurement of water vapor flux over a forest, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 96, 473-491.

Y. Yasuda, T. Watanabe, Y. Ohtani, M. Okano, K. Nakayama (1998) Seasonal variation of CO2 flux over a broadleaf deciduous forest. Journal of Japan Society Hydrological and Water Resources, 11(6), 575-585. in Japanese with English abstract)

Y. Yasuda, T. Watanabe, K. Yamanoi, Y. Ohtani, M. Tani, K. Nakayama (1997) Measurement of scalar flux from a forest using the bandpass covariance method. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 52, 493-496.