KBU:Kherlenbayan Ulaan

General site detail (updated 7 March 2012)
 Site name
 Kherlenbayan Ulaan
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location village of Kherlenbayan Ulaan, Mongolia
 Position 47º 12' 50.3" N, 108º 44'14.4" E 
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Elevation 1235 m above sea level 
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Slope plane and flat
 Terrain type
 Area -
 Fetch 240 m for SW, more than 800 for other directions
 Climate cold and semi-arid (arid - steppe - cold arid [BSk]  (Kottek et al. 2006))
 Mean annual air temperature
 1.2 ºC 
 Mean annual precipitation
 196mm ( 1993-2003 at IMH station)
 Vegetation type
 Uniform grassland
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Stipa krylovii, Carex sp., caragana stenophylla, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Artemisia frigida
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 up to 0.1 to 0.2 m
 Age -
 LAI less than 1
 Soil type
 Chestnut soil (Katanozem)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system  (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Kaijo SAT-550
 Air temperature
 Kaijo SAT-550
 Water vapor
 Open path(LI-7500, Li-Cor, USA)
 CO2 Open path(LI-7500, Li-Cor, USA)
 Measurement height
 3.5 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR-23x  (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 CR-23x  (Campbell, USA)
 Original data
 statistics only
 Scintillometer available only in 2003

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 2.5 m Four-component net radiometer,CNR1
 ( Kipp & Zonen )
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 2.5 m Four-component net radiometer,CNR1
 ( Kipp & Zonen )
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 2.5 m Four-component net radiometer,CNR1
 ( Kipp & Zonen )
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 2.5 m Four-component net radiometer,CNR1
 ( Kipp & Zonen )
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 2.4 m Temperature-humidity sensor, HMP45 (Vaisala) 
 Humidity 2.4 m  Temperature-humidity sensor, HMP45 (Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 -0.05, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -1, -1.5m C-PT, CLIMATEC Inc
 Soil heat flux
 -2, -10 m PHF-1.1, REBS, Inc
 Soil water 
 -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.7, -1, -1.5 m CS616, Campbell Scientific
 Wind speed
 Wind direction
 - Campbell PTB101
 Precipitation - CYG-52202, RM Young Company
 H2O concentration - 
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis -
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from March 2003 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2003-2009 in AsiaFlux Database
 Jun Asanuma (asanuma [at]suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp)
 Terrestrial Environment Research CenterUniversity of Tsukuba Tsukuba,  Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
 Tel:+81-298-53-6704 Fax:+ 81-298-53-6704
 Sheng-Gong Li (lisg [at] igsnrr.ac.cn)
 Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network  (CERN)Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources  Research (IGSNRR),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),
 DaTun Road A11, Anwai Street , ChaoYang DistrictBeijing, China PR,  100101
 Tel: +86-10-64889039 
 Gombo Davaa (watersecta [at] yahoo.com)
 Institute of Meteorology and HydrologyHudaldannyi St.-5,
 Ulaanbaatar 46, Mongolia
Calibration Information
 Calibration once a year.
 Fense, electric power, pole
Research Fund
 The rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study  experiment in north-eastern Asia (RAISE) project through financial  support from Japan Science and Technology Agency (2003-2006)
Sugita, M., Asanuma, J., Tsujimura, M., Mariko, S., Lu, M., Kimura, F.,Azzaya, D., and Adyasuren, T., 2007: An overview of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern asia (RAISE). Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 333, pp. 3-20.

S.-G. Li, J. Asanuma, W. Eugster, A. Kotani, G. Davaa, D. Oyunbaatar and M. Sugita (2005) Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange over grazed steppe in central Mongolia, Global Change Biology, online: 11, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01047.x

Asanuma J. and K. Iemoto (2006) Measurements of regional sensible heat flux over Mongolian grassland using large aperture scintillometer. Journal of Hydrology, 333, 58-67, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.031

Mariko S., T. Urano and J. Asanuma(2006): Effects of irrigation on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from Mongolian steppe soil. Journal of Hydrology, 333, 118-123, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.027

S.-G. Li, J. Asanuma, A. Kotani, G. Davaa and D. Oyunbaatar(2006): Evapotranspiration from a Mongolian steppe under grazing and its environmental constraints. Journal of Hydrology, 333, 133-143, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.021

Li, Sheng-Gong, and Eugster, Werner, and Asanuma, Jun and Kotani, Ayumi and Davaa, Gombo and Oyunbaatar, Dambaravjaa and Sugita, Michiaki, 2006, Energy partitioning and its biophysical controls above a grazing steppe in central Mongolia, afm, 137, 89-106

Li, S.-G. and W. Eugster and Asanuma, J. and A. Kotani and G. Davaa and D. Oyunbaatar and M. Sugita, 2008, Response of gross ecosystem productivity, light use efficiency, and water use efficiency of Mongolian steppe to seasonal variations in soil moisture, jgr-b, 113, G01019, doi:10.1029/2006JG000349