HEF: Hitsujigaoka Experimental Forest

General site detail (updated 15 April 2009)
 Site name
 Hitsujigaoka Experimental Forest
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position 42.989997 degree N, 141.387475 degree E
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS: Garmin eTrex  Legend and map)
 Elevation 165 m above sea level
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS: Garmin eTrex  Legend and map)
 Slope 0 - 5 degree sloping down to north
 Terrain type
 Gentle slope
 Area 46,000 m2
 Fetch 150 to 3000 m
 Climate Cool temperate
 (Snow-fully humid-warm summer [Dfb])
 Mean annual air temperature
 7.2 degreeC 
 Mean annual precipitation
 933 mm 
 Vegetation type
 Young evergreen conifer plantation
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Picea jezoensis Carr., Picea glehnii Masters, Abies  sachalinensis Masters.
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 6.5 m
 Age 23 years
 LAI 6
 Soil type
 Forest Bd type ?

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System band-pass eddy covariance system (latent heat flux,  continuous) and an eddy covariance using an Open- path IRGA (latent heat and CO2 flux, irregular and discontinuous )
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3T, KAIJO, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3T Probe TR-61C, KAIJO, Japan)
 Water vapor
 Bandpass eddy covariance (HMP35A, VAISALA, Finland)
 Open-path (E-009A, Advanet, Japan)
 CO2 Open-path (E-009A, Advanet, Japan)
 Measurement height
 8.51 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 1200 seconds in a half hour
 Data logger
 DRM2a, TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 12 m Pyranometer (MF-43F, MS-42, EKO, Japan)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 12 m Pyranometer (MS-42, EKO, Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 20 m Infrared radiometer with fan (PIR, Eppley, USA) on the top of the building
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 12 m Net radiometer ( CN-11, EKO, Japan)
 Net radiation
 12 m Net radiometer ( CN-11, EKO, Japan)
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 9.2, 1.7 m Platinum resistance thermometer  (HMP35D,VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 9.2, 1.7 m Capacitive hygrometer
 (HMP35D, VAISALA, Finland)
 Soil temperature
 0, 01, 0.1, 0.23  m Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 Wind speed
 9.6, 1.7 m 3-cups anemometer
 (AC-750, Makino, Japan; WM-30P, Ikeda, Japan)
 Wind direction
 12 m Wind Vane (Makino, Japan)
 1.2 m Barometer (PTB-100, VAISALA, Finland)
 Precipitation 1.8 m Tipping bucket raingauge (0.5 mm per tipping)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis -
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 December 1997 to November 1998
 Measurement Frequency
 Continuous water vapor flux observation
 Data Availability
 [General] Yojiro Matsura (orijoy [at] ffpri.affrc.go.jp )
 Department of meteorological Environment,Forestry and Forest  Products Research Institute1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687,  Japan
 Tel:+81-298-873-3211 Fax:+81-298-874-3720 
 Tower, Electrical power (100V AC 50Hz)
Research Fund
 Ordinary funds supported by the Hokkaido Research Center of the  Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute.
Other Information
 Weighing cut tree observation during the winter
 Automatic photograph down looking the tree canopy during the winter
Ohta, T., Suzuki, K., Kodama, Y., Kubota, J., Kominami, Y. and Nakai, Y. (1999): Characteristics of the Heat Balance above the Canopies of Evergreen and Deciduous Forests during the Snowy Season, Hydrological Processes, 13, 2383-2394.

Nakai Y, Sakamoto T, Terajima T, Kitamura K, Shirai T (1999): Energy Balance Above a Boreal Coniferous Forest: A Difference in Turbulent Fluxes between Snow-covered and Snow-free Canopies, Hydrological Processes, 13, 515-529.

Nakai,Y., Sakamoto, T., Terajima, T., Kitamura, K., and Shirai, T. (1999): An Effect of Canopy Snow on Energy Balance above a Coniferous Forest, Hydrological Processes, 13, 2371-2382.

Suzuki K, Nakai Y, Ohta T, Nakamura T, Ohata T (2003): Effect of snow interception on the energy balance above deciduous and coniferous forests during a snowy winter, IAHS Publication, 280, 309-317.

Kazuyoshi Suzuki, Yuichiro Nakai (2008): Canopy snow influence on water and energy balances in a coniferous forest plantation in northern Japan, Journal of Hydrology, 352, 126-138.

Kazuyoshi Suzuki, Yuji Kodama, Takeshi Yamazaki, Kenji Kosugi, Yuichiro Nakai (2008): snow accumulation on evergreen needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved trees, Boreal Environment Research, 13, 403-416.