GCK: Gwangreung Coniferous forest

General site detail (updated 21 April 2017)
 Site name
 Gwangreung Coniferous forest
 (previous name: KoFlux Gwangneung Supersite -
 Coniferous forest)
 AsiaFlux site code
 GCK
 Location Sohol-eup, Pocheon-si, Gyeonggi-do,
 Republic of Korea
 Position 37º 44'54" N, 127º09'44" E
 Elevation 132 m a.s.l
 Slope Dominant slopes 0~20°
 Terrain type
 Mountainous area (relatively flat)
 Area 221 ha
 Fetch 400m x 200m
 Climate Temperate(snow - winter dry - hot summer(Dwa))
 Mean annual air temperature
 11.5ºC
 Mean annual precipitation
 1332mm
 Vegetation type
 Coniferous forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Abies holophylla
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Cornus controversa and Morus alba
 Canopy height
 24m (2005) → 28m (present)
 Age ~80 years old
 LAI 4 to 8 (±1), max at June
 Soil type
 Sandy Loam
 URL http://www.ncam.kr/page/koflux/database/index.php

Observations
Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Enclosed path (CO2 flux, latent heat flux, after July 2014)
 Wind speed 
 3D sonic anemometer(CSAT3)
 Air temperature
 3D sonic anemometer(CSAT3)
 Water vapor
 Enclosed path infrared gas analyzer (LI-7200)
 CO2 Enclosed path infrared gas analyzer (LI-7200)
 Measurement height
 40 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR3000  (CSI)
 Data storage
 HD
 Original data
 Raw data (and statistics)

Meteorology
 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Instrument 
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 40 m Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 40 m Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 40 m Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 40 m Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Net radiation
 40 m Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 PPFD (incoming)
 -
 PPFD (outgoing)
 - 
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 - 
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 - 
 Air temperature,
 Humidity
 40 m Temperature and RH probe
 (HMP155, Vaisala, Finland)
 40, 34, 28, 18, 9, 4,
 1, 0.1 m
 Profile system
 (AP200, Campbell Sci., Inc., USA)
 Soil temperature
 0- -0.1 m 
 Soil thermocouple probe (TCAV, CSI)
 Soil heat flux
 -0.01 m 
 Heat flux plate (HFT3, CSI)
 -0.03 m
 Heat flux plate (HFP01, CSI)
 Soil water 
 content 
 -0.1m, -0.3m, -0.6m Water content reflectometer (CS616, CSI)
 Wind speed
 40, 34, 28, 18, 9,
 4 m 
 3D sonic anemometer (CSAT3, CSI)
 Wind direction
 40, 34, 28, 18, 9,
 4 m
 3D sonic anemometer (CSAT3, CSI)
 Barometric 
 pressure
 40 m Enclosed path in rared gas analyzer
 (LI-7200, Li-Cor, USA)
 Precipitation 28 m /surface Tipping Bucket
 (WDR-205, Wedaen Co., Korea)
 COconcentration
 40, 34, 28, 18, 9, 4,  1, 0.1 m Profile system (AP200)
 H2O concentration 40, 34, 28, 18, 9, 4,  1, 0.1 m Profile system (AP200)
Other
 Soil respiration
 Portable chamber (LI-6400)
 Photosynthesis Sap flow measurement, Portable chamber (LI-6400)
 Ecological investigation
 LAI, tree ring growth rate, litter fall, camera image
 
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 From 2005 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Continuous
 Data Availability
 2007, 2008 in AsiaFlux Database
Contact
 Minseok Kang (ms-kang [at] ncam.kr)
 National Center for Agro-Meteorology
 Bld.36/Rm.109, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu,
 Seoul 151-742, Korea
 Phone : +82-2-871-0236   Fax : +82-2-871-0230
 Joon Kim (joon [at] snu.ac.kr)
 Department of Landscape Architecture & Rural Systems Engineering,  Seoul National University
 Complex Systems Science Laboratory, Bld.36/Rm.108, Seoul National
 University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu,  Seoul 08826, Korea
 Phone : +82-2-880-4663   Fax : +82-2-871-0230
 Jung Hwa Chun (chunjh69 [at] korea.kr)
 Division of Forest Ecology, National Institute of Forest Science
 National Institute of Forest Science, 57 Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu,
 Seoul 02455, Korea
 Phone: +82-2-961-2605   Fax: +82-2-961-2629
 Calibration Information
 Infrared gas analyzer of EC system was calibrated approximately in
 every 6 months with standard CO2 gases and a dew point generator
 (LI610, Li-Cor). 
 The CO2/H2O concentration profile system is being calibrated  once a  day for the zero (CO2, H2O) and span CO2 concentration. H2O span is
 being manually calibrated once a week.
 Other micrometeorological instruments are being calibrated approx.  once in every 2 year.
 Infrastructure
 Tower, Electrical power(AC)
 Research Fund
 Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development
 Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-2023 and Weather Information
 Service Engine (WISE) project, KMIPA-2012-0001-2

 Korea Forest Service (Project #S111215L020110)

 National Institute of Forest Science (Application plan research of
 long-term forest ecological information)
Publication
Kang, M., B.L. Ruddell*, C.-H. Cho, J.-H. Chun, and J.Kim (2017). "Identifying CO2 Advection on a Hill Slope Using Information Flow." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 232: 265-278.

Kim, D., Y. Lim, M. Kang, and M. Choi* (2016). "Land Response to Atmosphere at Different Resolutions in the Common Land Model over East Asia." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 33(3): 391-408.

Lee, S.-J.*, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Malla Thakuri, (2014). "Numerical Simulation of Local Atmospheric Circulations in the Valley of Gwangneung KoFlux Sites (in Korean with English abstract)." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 16(3): 246-260.

Kang, M., J. Kim*, H.-S. Kim, B. Malla Thakuri, and J.-H. Chun (2014). "On the Nighttime Correction of Eddy Covariance CO2 Flux Measurement over Temperate Forests in Complex Terrain (in Korean with English abstract)." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 16(3): 233-245.

Kang, M., H. kwon, J. Cheon, and J. Kim, (2012). "On estimating wet canopy evaporation from deciduous and coniferous forests in the Asian monsoon climate." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 950-965.

Chae, N. (2011). "Annual Variation of Soil Respiration and Precipitation in a Temperate Forest (Quercus serrata and Carpinus laxiflora) under East Asian Monsoon Climate." Journal of Plant Biology 54(2): 101-111.

Yuan, R., M. Kang, et al. (2010). "Expansion of the planar-fit method to estimate flux over complex terrain." Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 110(3-4): 123-133.

Lee, N.-y., J.-W. Koo, et al. (2010). "Autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in needle fir and Quercus dominated stands in a cool-temperate forest, central Korea." Journal of Plant Research 123(4): 485-495.

Lee, N.-y., J.-W. Koo, et al. (2010). "Seasonal variation in soil CO2 efflux in evergreen coniferous and broad-leaved deciduous forests in a cool-temperate forest, central Korea." Ecological Research 25(3): 609-617.

Lee, D., J. Kim, et al. (2010). "Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange." Biogeosciences 7(6): 1903-1914.

Kwon, H., J. Kim, et al. (2010). "Influence of the Asian Monsoon on net ecosystem carbon exchange in two major plant functional types in Korea." Biogeosciences 7: 1493-1504.

Kim, Y., S. Kang, et al. (2010). "Inter-annual and inter-plot variations of wood biomass production as related to biotic and abiotic characteristics at a deciduous forest in complex terrain, Korea." Ecological Research 25(4): 757-765.

Kim, S.-J., J. Kim, et al. (2010). "Organic carbon sequestration and discharge from a deciduous forest catchment in Korea." Biogeosciences 7: 1323-1334.

Jang, K., S. Kang, et al. (2010). "Mapping evapotranspiration using MODIS and MM5 Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation." Remote Sensing of Environment 114(3): 657-673.

Lee, H. A., T.-K. Hong, et al. (2009). "Effects of Evapotranspiration and Earth Tides on the Water-Level Fluctuation in a Forest Catchment in Gwangneung." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 45(2): 113-120.

Kwon, H., T.-Y. Park, et al. (2009). "Seasonality of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Major Plant Functional Types in Korea." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 45(2): 149-163.

Kim, S.-J., D. Lee, et al. (2009). "Use of Isotope Data to Determine Mean Residence Time (MRT) of Water in a Forest Catchment: 35S and 3H-based Estimates." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 45(2): 165-173.

Kang, M., S. Park, et al. (2009). "Evapotranspiration from a Deciduous Forest in a Complex Terrain and a Heterogeneous Farmland Under Monsoon Climate." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 45(2): 175-191.

Jang, K., S. Kang, et al. (2009). "Evaluation of Shortwave Irradiance and Evapotranspiration Derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 45(2): 233-246.

Ryu, Y., S. Kang, et al. (2008). "Evaluation of land surface radiation balance derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) over complex terrain and heterogeneous landscape on clear sky days." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148(10): 1538-1552.

Lim, H.-j. and Y.-H. Lee (2008). "Processing and Quality Control of Flux Data at Gwangneung Forest." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest 10(3): 82-93.

Hong, J., J. Kim, et al. (2008). "Estimation of the storage and advection effects on H2O and CO2 exchanges in a hilly KoFlux forest catchment." Water Resources Research 44: W01426.

Kim, J. (2007). "KoFlux 2006 Synthesis : HydroKorea and CarboKorea - Forward." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 71-74.

Choi, I.-H., N. C. Woo, et al. (2007). "Estimation of the Groundwater Recharge Rate during a Rainy Season at a Headwater Catchment in Gwangneung, Korea." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 75-87.

Moon, S.-K., Y. Ryu, et al. (2007). "Quantifying the Spatial Heterogeneity of the Land Surface Parameters at the Two Contrasting KoFlux Sites by Semivariogram." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 140-148.

Yuan, R., M. Kang, et al. (2007). "The Effect of Coordinate Rotation on the Eddy Covariance Flux Estimation in a Hilly KoFlux Forest Catchment." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 100-108.

Kim, E. S., S. K. Kang, et al. (2007). "Parameterization and Application of Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) for Integrating the Eco-hydrological Processes in the Gwangneung Headwater Catchment." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 121-131.

Son, M., S. Kim, et al. (2007). "Univariate Analysis of Soil Moisture Time Series for a Hillslope Located in the KoFlux Gwangneung Supersite." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 88-99.

Lee, D., J. Kim, et al. (2007). "Lessons from Cross-Scale Studies of Water and Carbon Cycles in the Gwangneung Forest Catchment in a Complex Landscape of Monsoon Korea." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 149-160.

Kim, S.-J., D. Lee, et al. (2007). "Hydro-Biogeochemical Approaches to Understanding of Water and Carbon Cycling in the Gwangneung Forest Catchment." Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 9(2): 109-120.

Kim, J., et al., (2006). Upscaling CO2 flux from tower to landscape:Overlaying tower flux footprint calculations on high resolution(IKONOS) vegetation density images, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 136, 132-146. 

Kim, J., et al.,(2006). HydroKorea and CarboKorea: cross-scale studies of ecohydrology and biogeochemistry in a heterogeneous and complex forest catchment of Korea, Ecological Research, 21, 881-889.

Cho, Kyungsook, et al.(2003). Characteristics of Canopy Heat Storage within a Conifer at Kwangneung Arboretum in Korea From September to December 2001, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 6(1), 37-45.

Kim, C.S. et al.(2003). Nurtient, Dynamics in Litterfall and Decomposing Leaf Litter at the Kwangneung Deciduous Broad-leaved Natural Forest., Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5(2), 87-93.

Moon, B.K. et al., (2003), Field Intercomparison and Calibration of Net Radiometers Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5(2), 128-137.

Son, Y.H, et al.(2003). Forest Stand Structure, Site, Characteristics and Carbon Budget of the Kwangneung Natural Forest in Korea, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5(2), 110-115.

Hong, J.K. et al.(2003), Inferring Regional Scale Surface Heat Flux around FK KoFlux Site: From One Point Tower Measurement to MM5 Mesoscale Model, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5(2), 138-149.

Chae, N.Y. et al.(2003), Measurement of Soil CO2 Efflux Using a Closed Dynamic Chamber System, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 5(2), 94-100.