CLM: Chi-Lan Mountain Research Site, Taiwan

General site detail (Updated 14 July 2010)
 Site name
 Chi-Lan Mountain Research Site, Taiwan 
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Chi-Lan forest district, I-Lan county, Taiwan
 Position 24° 35'N, 121° 24'E 
 Elevation 1400-1800m 
 Slope about 15°
 Terrain type
 Steep mountain slope
 Area 374 ha uniform forest stand 
 Fetch 20 - 90 m (Unstable daytime, 90% source area,  south-eastern direction) 90 - 700 m (Near neutral  nighttime, 90% source area, northern direction) 
 Climate Cfb, Subtropical (or warm temperate), fully humid, warm summer
 Mean annual air temperature
 13 deg C 
 Mean annual precipitation
 4000 mm 
 Vegetation type
 evergreen conifer forest plantation
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Chamaecyparis obtusa var.  formosana,Chamaecyparis formosensis
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Rhododendron formosanum
 Canopy height
 11-14 m
 Age 50 years
 LAI 5.8-6.1
 Soil type
  Lithic Leptosol

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed-path and  Open-path 
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell, USA)
 Air temperature
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3, Campbell, USA)
 Water vapor
 Measurement height
 24 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR5000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Downloading data hourly with desktop computer and backup with compact Flash card in the data logger.
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 22.5 m CNR-1(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 22.5 m CNR-1(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 22.5 m CNR-1(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 22.5 m CNR-1(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Net radiation
 22.5 m CNR-1(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 PPFD (incoming)
 23.3 m Quantum sensor (LI-191, LI-COR, USA )
 PPFD (outgoing)
 1.6 m Quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-190SA)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 22.3 m Delta-T BF3
 Air temperature
12.2, 22.8m R.M.Young 41382VC T/RH sensor in 43408 
 aspired radiation shield
 Humidity 12.2, 22.8m  R.M.Young 41382VC T/RH sensor in 43408  
 aspired radiation shield
 Soil temperature
 10, 30cm  (depth) Thermister type, Mingguan hh (Taiwan)
 Soil heat flux
 5 cm (depth) Huseflux HFP01
 Soil water 
 10, 30cm  (depth) Delta T ML2x (UK)
 Wind speed
 23.7 m 
 R.M. Young 05305
 Wind direction
 23.7 m R.M. Young 05305
 2m R.M. Young 61202V
 Precipitation nearby  clearance Takeda TIC-1
 0.5, 1.0, 2.0,  4.0, 8.0, 13.2,  16.0, 24.0 m LI-COR LI-840 gas analyzer
 H2O concentration  0.5, 1.0, 2.0,  4.0, 8.0, 13.2,  16.0, 24.0 m  LI-COR LI-840 gas analyzer
 Below canopy radiation 5.2 m CM3(Kipp & Zonen, Netherland)
 Visibility 22.3, 4.9 m MIRA visibility sensor 3544
 Leaf wetness 5.3, 8.3, 11.2,  14.2 m Campbell Leaf wetness sensor 237
 Soil respiration
 LI-8100(Li-cor, USA)
 Photosynthesis LI-6400 (Li-cor)
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 From April 2005 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2007-2009 in AsiaFlux  Database
 Yue-Joe HSIA (yjhsia01 [at]
 Lab of Forest Hydrology and Micrometeorology,
 College of Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University,
 No. 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC
 TEL : +886-3-863-3263 FAX : +886-3-863-3260
 Jehn-Yih JUANG (jjuang [at] 
 Department of Geography, National Taiwan University,
 No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, 10617, TAIWAN
 Tel : +886-2-3366-5837
 Shih-Chieh CHANG (scchang [at]
 Lab of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research,
 College of Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University,
 No. 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC
 TEL : +886-3-863-3275 FAX : +886-3-863-3260
Mildenberger, K., Beiderwieden, E., Hsia, Y. J. & Klemm, O. (2009) CO2 and water vapor fluxes above a subtropicalmountain cloud forest–The effect of light conditions and fog. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 1730-1736.

Hsieh, C. I., Lai, M. C., Hsia, Y. J. & Chang, T. J. (2008) Estimation of sensible heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes using flux-variance method. International Journal of Biometeorology, 52, 521-533.

Beiderwieden, E., Wolff, V., Hsia, Y. J. & klemm, O. (2008) It goes both ways: measurements of simultaneous evapotranspiration and fog droplet deposition at a montane cloud forest. Hydrological Processes, 22, 4181-4189.

Chang, S. C., Tseng, K. H., Hsia, Y. J., Wang, C. P. & Wu, J. T. (2008) Soil respiration in a subtropical montane cloud forest in Taiwan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 788-798.

Problem in this site
 a.Due to steep slope with distinct diurnal mountain-valley wind pattern,  additional horizontal fluxes measurement will be needed in the future.
 b.Frequently heavy fog and rainfall limit the application of open-path  system and occasionally problems of the sonic anemometer.
 c.Unstable AC power supply due to remote site location occasionally  interrupts the closed-path system.
 d.Heavy rainfall and gusty wind during Typhoons period interrupt AC  power and traffic to the field site
 AC Power

Research Fund
 Funding by Environmental Protection Agency, Taiwan

Other Information