BFT: Betul Flux Research Site

General site detail (updated 20 July 2012)
 Site name
 Betul Flux Research Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Betul, Madhya Pradesh, India
 Position 21 51' 46.84" N, 77 25' 33.67" E
 Elevation 507m above sea level
 Slope <5 degree
 Terrain type
 Area 176 ha
 Fetch 400-1000m
 Climate Tropical Moist Climates (hot summer - cool winter)  (As)
 Mean annual air temperature
 27 degree C
 Mean annual precipitation
 1016 mm
 Vegetation type
 Teak mixed deciduous forest 
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Tectona grandis (Teak)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Miliusa tomentosa
 Canopy height
 22 m
 Age  About 60 years old
 LAI -3.5
 Soil type
 Black Soil

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system
 Wind speed
  3 - axis Ultrasonic anemometer ( RM Young 81000, USA)
 Air temperature
  3 - axis Ultrasonic anemometer ( RM Young 81000, USA)
 Water vapor
 Open-path infrared gas analyzer 
 (IR Hygrometer LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 CO2 Open-path infrared gas analyzer 
 (IR Hygrometer LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 28.2 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR1000 (Campbell,USA)
 Data storage
 2 GB Data Card
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 28 m CMP 6 (Kipp&Zonen, Netherland)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 28 m CGR-03 (Kipp&Zonen, Netherland)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 32,28,16,8,4,2  m Hygroclips S3 (Rotoronic,Switzerland)
 Humidity 32,28,16,8,4,2  m Hygroclips S3 (Rotoronic,Switzerland)
 Soil temperature
 +5cm, 0cm, -5cm, -10cm, -20cm, -50cm, -100cm KDS 037(Komoline, India)
 Soil heat flux

 Soil water  
 10cm, 20cm,  30cm, 40cm,  60cm, 100cm PR2/6 (Delta-T, UK)
 Wind speed
 32,28,16,8,4,2  m RM Young 5103 ( Secondwind,USA)
 Wind direction
 32,28,16,8,4,2  m RM Young 5103 ( Secondwind,USA)
 28,2 m KDS 021 (Komoline, India)
 Precipitation 32 m Tipping-bucket rainguage
 (RM Young 52203, USA)
 28.2 m IR Hygrometer LI-7500 (LI-COR, USA)
 H2O concentration
 28.2 m IR Hygrometer LI-7500 (LI-COR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis  Leaf level photosynthesis( LI 6400, USA) 
 Ecological investigation
 Phytosociology, Biomass, LAI
 (LAI 2200, CI-110)
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 November 2012 till date
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 -Dr. V.K. Dadhwal (director [at] )
  Director, NRSC & Project Director, National Carbon Project
 -Dr. Chandra Shekhar Jha (chandra.s.jha [at]
  Group Head, Forestry & Ecology Group & Program
  Co-ordinator,National Carbon Project
- Dr. TR Kiran Chand (trkchand[at]
  Scientist 'SD', Forestry & Ecology Group 
- R Suraj Reddy (surajking123[at]
  Scientist 'SC', Forestry & Ecology Group 
 National Remote Sensing Centre (ISRO)
 Department of Space, Government of India
 Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 625, India
 Telephone (O) : +91 40 2388 4001
 Fax: +91 40 2387 7210
 [Sensor Integration & Maintenance]
 K. Venkata Raghavendra (venkataraghavendra_k [at] )
 Tower 34m (Stairs not equipped) 
 Electric Power: Batteries(DC12V) + Solar panelsSolar powered Flux   Tower, Wireless Local Loop (WLL) communication, 
Research Fund
 Indian Space Research Organization - Geosphere Biosphere Program  (ISRO-GBP)