AKO: Akou green belt

General site detail (Updated 13 June 2007)
 Site name
 Akou green belt
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Akou, Hyogo, Japan
 Position 34º 44' 5.8" N, 134º 22' 27.5" E
 Elevation N/A
 Slope N/A
 Terrain type
 Area N/A
 Fetch 120 to 140m
 Climate warm temperate, Cfa
 Mean annual air temperature
 15.2 deg (1995 - 1999)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1159mm (1995 - 1999)
 Vegetation type
 Evergreen broad-leaved forest (12 temperate  evergreen and 4 deciduous broad-leaved tree  species)
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus thunbergii, Quercus serrata, Castanopsis cuspidate, Ulmus parvifolia, Quercus glauca
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 8 m
 Age Planted in 1987
 LAI 3.5 to 5.0
 Soil type

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed-path system (2000.1.1 - 2002.12)
 Open-path system (2002.12-2003.12.31)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer  
 (DA600-3T Probe TR-61C, KAIJO, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer  
 (DA600-3T Probe TR-61C, KAIJO, Japan)
 Water vapor
 Open-path (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA), 
 Closed-path (LI-6262 or LI-7000, LI-COR, USA)
 CO2 Open-path (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA), 
 Closed-path (LI-6262 or LI-7000, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 10.1 m
 Sampling frequency
 8 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR10X (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 9.8 m MR-40 (Eiko, Japan)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 9.8 m MR-40 (Eiko, Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 9.8 m MR-40 (Eiko, Japan)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 9.8 m MR-40 (Eiko, Japan)
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
  9.8 m PAR01(Prede, Japan)
 PPFD (outgoing)
  9.8, 1.0 m PAR01(Prede, Japan)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 9.8 m Platinum resistance thermometer 
 (HMP35C, VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 9.8 m 
 Capacitive hygrometer 
 (HMP35, VAISALA, Finland)
 Soil temperature
 0.02, 0.1 m 
 Thermistor (107, Campbell, USA)
 Soil heat flux
 0.01 m 
 MF81 (EKO, Japan)
 Soil water 
 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5,  0.6 m
 (DIK3150, Daiki Rika, Japan)
 Wind speed
 9.8 m 
 3-cups anemometer
 (WM-30P, Ikeda, Japan) 
 sonic anemometer thermometer 
 (DA600, KAIJO, Japan)
 Wind direction
 10.1 m sonic anemometer thermometer 
 (DA600, KAIJO, Japan)
 Precipitation 9.8 m Tipping bucket rain gauge
 (RT-5, Ikeda Keiki, Japan)
 10.1 m CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-7000 or LI-6262, or LI-7500 LI-COR, 
 Soil respiration
 Occasionally with manual closed  dynamic chamber system
 Photosynthesis Occasionally with LI-6400 (Li-cor)
 Ecological investigation
 DBH, Tree height
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 Occasional eddy flux measurement  from 1993 to 1996
 Continuous flux dataset from 2000  to 2003
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Yoshiko Kosugi (ykosugi [at] kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp)
 Forest hydrology
 Graduate school agriculture, Kyoto University
 Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502 Japan
 Tel:+81-75-753-6086 Fax:+81-75-753-6149
 Satoru Takanashi (tnsatoru [at] ffpri.affrc.go.jp)
 Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
 Tel:+81-29-829-8242 Fax:+81-29-874-3720
 Tower, Electrical power (100V AC 60Hz)
Kosugi, Y., Takanashi, S., Matsuo, N., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, H., 2006. Impact of leaf physiology on gas exchange in a Japanese evergreen broad-leaved forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 139, 182-199.

Kosugi, Y., Matsuo, N., 2006. Seasonal fluctuations and temperature dependence of leaf gas exchange parameters of co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Tree Physiology 26, 1173-1184.

Kosugi, Y., Tanaka, H., Takanashi, S., Matsuo, N., Ohte, N., Shibata, S., Tani, M., 2005. Three years of carbon and energy fluxes from Japanese evergreen broad-leaved forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 132, 329-343.

Matsuo, N., Kosugi, Y., Ohte, N., Koba, K., 2002. Analysis of water-use efficiency of temperate evergreen broad-leaved trees using carbon isotope discrimination. (in Japanese with English abstract). Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology & Water Resources 15, 229-242.

Tanaka, K., Kosugi, Y., Nakamura, A., 2002. Impact of leaf physiological characteristics on seasonal variation in CO2, latent and sensible heat exchanges over a tree plantation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 114, 103-122.

Tanaka, K., 2002. Multi-layer model of CO2 exchange in a plant community coupled with the water budget of leaf surfaces. Ecological Modelling 147, 85-104.