LHC: The Lien-Hua-Chih Hydrometeorological Study Site
General site detail (Updated 09 October 2012)
 Site name
 The Lien-Hua-Chih Hydrometeorological Study Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Nantou, Taiwan
 Position 120º 53' 38.94'' E 23º 55' 51.48''N
 Elevation 773 m above sea level
 Slope 30 - 40 deg
 Terrain type
 Gently rolling hill
 Area 8.39 ha
 Fetch 100-200m
 Climate Mild with dry winter, hot summer (Cwa)
 Mean annual air temperature
 19.2 in Celsius (data from 1971 to 2000)
 Mean annual precipitation
 2404.6 mm (data from 1971 to 2000
 Vegetation type
 Evergreen & Hardwood
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Engelard Roxlourghiana(黄杞), Tutcheria  Shinkoensis(烏皮茶), Cryptocarya Chinensis(厚殼  桂)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Pteridaceae(鳳尾蕨科): Pteris dispar Kunze (天草鳳  尾蕨) Fabaceae(蝶形花科): Mucuna macrocarpa  Wall. (血藤)
 Canopy height
 About 15 meter in average
 Age 60 years
 LAI 2.4 to 4.5 (Overstory Growing Season)
 Soil type

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed-path system
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3A, Campbell, USA)
 Air temperature
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (CSAT3A, Campbell, USA)
 Water vapor
 Open path Gas Analyzer (Campbell, EC-150)
 CO2 Open path Gas Analyzer (Campbell, EC-150)
 Measurement height
 25 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 60 min
 Data logger
 CR1000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) - 
 Net radiation
 23 m Radiometer
 (Campbell Scientific Inc, REBS Q*7.1)
 PPFD (incoming)
 23 m Pyranometer Sensor (LI-200SZ)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 0, 5, 10,15, 20  m  Platinum resistant thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP45C, Vaisala)
 Humidity 0, 5, 10,15, 20  m  Platinum resistant thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP45C, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5,  0.7, 0.9, 1.5 m  (under ground) Thermal couple (copper constant) thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 0.05 m  Huseflux plate
 Soil water 
 0.1, 0.3, 0.5,  0.7, 0.9 m  (three points) Capacitance Probe (EnviroSMARTTM, v1.2)
 Wind speed
 20 m 
 Wind Monitor (R.M. Young 05103 )
 Wind direction
 20 m Wind Monitor (R.M. Young 05103 )
 Precipitation 20 m, Ground  (six points) Rain Gauge (Campbell Scientific Inc, TE525MM)
 0, 5, 10, 15, 20  m Close path (LI-COR, LI-820)
 Lysimeter Decagon Devices Inc, Gee Passive  Capillary (-0.5 m)
 Throughfall Rain Gauge (six points )
 Sapflow Thermal dissipation (eight)
 Soil respiration Home made chamber
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 From April 2005 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Ming-Hsu Li (mli [at] cc.ncu.edu.tw)
 Yi-Ying Chen (spancer [at] cc.ncu.edu.tw)
 Graduate Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National  Central University, Taiwan No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan  County 32001, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
 Tel:+886-3-4227151 ext.65691 Fax:+886-3-4222894


 Tower, Electrical power (DC solar energy), Facilities for communication  (GPRS modem ), Accommodation (up to 30 persons )

Research Fund

 National Science Council (NSC96-2116-M-008-004) 
 NSC 99-2116-M- 008-021; NSC 100-2116-M-008-003) 


 Chen, Y.Y., Li, M.H.*, 2013. Determining Adequate Averaging Periods and Reference Coordinates for Eddy Covariance Measurements of Surface Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes over Mountainous Terrain, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol.24 No.1, i, doi: 10.3319/TAO.2012.05.02.01(Hy). link

Chen, Y.Y., Chu, C.R., Li, M.H.*, 2012. A Semiparametric Multivariate Gapfilling Model for Eddy Covariance Fluxes: Estimating Evapotranspiration of a Subtropical Seasonal Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest as An Example, Journal of Hydrology, Vol.468-469, pp.101-110, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.08.026. link