KMW: Kog-Ma Wateshed
Gengeral site detail (Updated 04 October 2007)
 Site name
 Kog-Ma Wateshed
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location ChiangMai Province, Thailand
 Position 18º 48'N, 98º 54'E (WGS84, GPS)
 Elevation 1265-1420 m above sea level (WGS84, GPS)
 Slope N/A
 Terrain type
 Area 8.63ha (an area of a sub-watershed within which the  tower is located)
 Fetch N/A
 Climate Humid-subtropical (Cwa)
 Mean annual air temperature
 19.9  degree C
 Mean annual precipitation
 1756 mm (1997 to 2005)
 Vegetation type
 Tropical mountain forest (Hill evergreen forest)
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Betula alnoides, Castanopsis acurinatissima,  C.diversifolia, C.tribuloides.
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 25 - 40 m
 Age N/A
 LAI 3.5 - 4.5
 Soil type
 Reddish Brown Lateritic (Tangtham, 1974) 
 Sandy clay loam (Tropohumults Ultisols) 
 (Chunkao et al. 1981) 3.0 m

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System open-path system
 Wind speed
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (USA-1, METEK, Germany)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 Water vapor
 Open-path infrared gas analyzer (LI-7500, LICOR, USA)
 CO2 Open-path infrared gas analyzer (LI-7500, LICOR, USA)
 Measurement height
 40.2 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR5000, Campbell
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 50.5 m Pyranometer (MS-801, EKO, Japan; CM-21, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 43.4 m Pyranometer 
 (MS-42, EKO; CM-21, Kipp & Zonen)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 50.5 m Pyrgeometer (MS-201F, EKO; PIR, Epply, USA; CG4, Kipp & Zonen)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 43.4 m Pyrgeometer (MS-201F, EKO; PIR, Epply)
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 47.8, 2 m

 43.7 m

 31.2, 21.4, 11.7, 1.5m
 Resistive platinum sensor
 (HMP35A, HMP45D, Vaisala, Finnland)
 Ventilated wet and dry bulb hygrometer 
 (MH-020S, EKO)
 Sensor with dataloggers
 (H08-032-08, Onset, USA)
 Humidity 43.4, 2 m 

 43.7 m
 Capacitive hygrometer (HMP35A, HMP45D, Vaisala)
 Ventilated wet and dry bulb hygrometer
 (MH-020S, EKO)
 Soil temperature
 -0.05, -0.1, -0.3  m CT-UU-A10-2A, Vaisala
 Soil heat flux
 -0.01, -0.1 m MF81, EKO
 Soil water 
 -0.1, -0.19,  -0.275, -0.38,  -0.48 TDR (CS615; Campbell, USA)
 Wind speed
 50.3, 43.4, 39.7 -> 25, 34m 3cup anemometer (AC750, MAKINO, Japan)
 Wind direction
 50.1 m  Wind vane (VR036, MAKINO)
 2 m  PTB101, Vaisla
 Precipitation 1 m Tipping bucket (No.34-T; OHTA KEIKI, Japan)
 40, 31.2, 21.4,  11.7, 1.5 m Closed-path infrared gas analyzer (LI-800, LI- COR, USA) (Occasional measurement)
 Soil respiration
 Closed dynamic chamber method
 (LI6262, LI-COR)
 Photosynthesis Occasionally with LCA-4 (Analytical  Development Company Ltd.) [Tanaka K. et  al., 2003]
 Ecological investigation
 Wood increment with dendro-band
 Methane (CH4) -
 Nitrous oxide (NO2) -
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from February 1997 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Masakazu SUZUKI (suzuki [at]
 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo Yayoi1-1-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo,  113-8657, Japan
 Tel:+81-3-5841-5214 /Fax:+81-3-5841-5464
 Nobuaki TANAKA (tanaka [at]
 University Forest in Aichi, University of Tokyo11-44 Goizuka, Seto City,  Aichi 489-0031 JAPAN
 Tel: +81-561-82-2371 Fax: 0561-85-2838
 Natsuko YOSHIFUJI (natsuko [at]
 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo Yayoi1-1-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo,  113-8657, Japan
 Tel:+81-3-5841-5214 /Fax:+81-3-5841-5464
 Chatchai TANTASIRIN (fforcct [at]
 Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart UniversityChatujak, Bangkok 10900,  ThailandTel: +66-84-000-7122
 Katsunori TANAKA (ktanakaimage [at]
 Frontier Research Center for Global Change3173-25 Showa-machi,  Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 JAPAN
 Tel: +81-45-778-5547 Fax: +81-45-778-5706
 Tower, Accommodation (available)
 Research Fund
 GEWEX/GAME-T (1996-2001)
 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST)  Project by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) “Effects of  rainfall variability on water cycle and ecosystem in tropical forest under  Asian monsoon climate” (2003-2008)
 Hashimoto, S. Tanaka, N. Suzuki, M. Inoue, A. Takizawa, H. Kosaka, I. Tanaka, K. Tantasirin, C. Tangtham, N. (2004) Soil respiration and soil CO2 concentration in a tropical forest, Thailand. Journal of Forest Research, 9, 75-79.

Hashimoto, S., Tanaka, N., Kume, T., Yoshifuji, N., Hotta, N., Tanaka, K., Suzuki, M. (2007) Seasonality of vertically partitioned soil CO2 production in temperate and tropical forest. Journal of Forest Reserch, 12, 209-221.

Komatsu, H., Yoshida, N., Takizawa, H., Kosaka, I., Tantasirin, C., Suzuki, M. (2003) Seasonal trend in the occurrence of nocturnal drainage flow on a forested slope under a tropical monsoon climate. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 106, 573-592.

Komatsu, H., Hotta, N., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Oki, T. (2005) Classification of vertical wind speed profiles observed above a sloping forest at nighttime using the bulk Richardson number. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 115, 205-221.

Kosaka, I., Takizawa, H., Tanaka, K., Tantasirin, C., Suzuki, M., Tsukamoto, Y. (2004) Characteristics of Turbulence Components above a Hill Evergreen Forest in Tropical Region. J. Japan Soc. Hydrol. & Water Resour., 17(2), 123-133. (in Japanese, with English abstract)

Kume, T., Takizawa, H., Yoshifuji, N., Tanaka, K., Tantasirin, C., Tanaka, N., Suzuki, M. (2007) Impact of soil drought on sap flow and water status of evergreen trees in a tropical monsoon forest in northern Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management, 238, 220-230, DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.10.019.

Tanaka, K., Takizawa, H., Tanaka, N., Kosaka, I., Yoshifuji, N., Tantasirin, C., Piman, S., Suzuki, M., Tangtham, N. (2003) Transpiration peak over a hill evergreen forest in northern Thailand in the late dry season: Assessing the seasonal change in evapotranspiration using a multilayer model. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 108(D17), 4533. DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003028.

Tanaka, K., Takizawa, H., Kume, T., Xu, J., Tantasirin, C., Suzuki, M. (2004) The impact of rooting depth and soil hydraulic properties on the transpiration peak of an evergreen forest in northern Thailand in the late dry season. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 109(D23), D23107. DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004865.

Tanaka, N., Tantasirin, C., Kuraji, K., Suzuki, M., Tangthan, N. (2005) Inter-annual variation in rainfall interception at a hill evergreen forest in northern Thailand. Bulletin of the Tokyo University Forests, 113, 11-44.