TUR: Tura

General site detail (Updated 10 May 2010)
 Site name
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Evenkia Autonomous District in central Siberia,  Russia
 Position 64.208888 degN, 100.463555 degE
 Elevation 250 m above sea level
 Slope Almost flat, slightly sloped down to north
 Terrain type
 higher terrace of the Nizhnya Tunguska River
 Area More than 250 ha
 Fetch 600-1200 m
 Climate Extremely continental, rather hot summer and very  cold winter, air temperature diurnal range larger  than 15 degree. (snow-fully humid-cool summer  [Dfc] : Kottek et al. (2006))
 Mean annual air temperature
 -9.2 degreeC
 Mean annual precipitation
 317 mm
 Vegetation type
 Larix gmelinii forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Larix gmelinii
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Lichen and mosses: Cladina stellaris, Cetraria  cuculata, Pleurozium schreberi, etc. Shrubs:  Betula  nana, Ledum palstre, Vaccinium  uliginosum,  Vaccinium vitis-idaea, etc.
 Canopy height
 3.4 m
 Age 105 years in 2005
 LAI Less than 0.3
 Soil type
 Cryosol (Gelisol : USDA Soil Taxonomy),  permafrost table depth less than 1m

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Sonic anemometer and Open path IRGA
 Wind speed 
 3-D sonic anemometer (R3, Gill, UK)
 Air temperature
 3-D sonic anemometer (R3, Gill, UK)
 Water vapor
 Open path gas analyzer (LI7500, LICOR,USA)
 CO2 Open path gas analyzer (LI7500, LICOR,USA)
 Measurement height
 19.7 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR-5000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 PCMCIA ATA Flash card 1.8 GB
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 19.0 m Net Pyrradiometer
 (CNR-1, Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 18.6 m Net Pyrradiometer
 (CNR-1, Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 19.0 m Net Pyrradiometer
 (CNR-1, Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 18.6 m Net Pyrradiometer
 (CNR-1, Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Net radiation
 18.8 m Net Pyrradiometer
 (CNR-1, Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 PPFD (incoming)
 18.8 m Quantum sensor
 (LI-190SB, LI-COR, USA)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 18.7 m Quantum sensor
 (LI-190SB, LI-COR, USA)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 18.7 m Platinum resistance thermometer 
 (HMP45D, VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 18.7 m 
 Capacitive hygrometer 
 (HMP45D, VAISALA, Finland)
 Soil temperature
 0.05, 0.1, 0.2,  0.4,  0.5m Platinum resistance thermometer 
 (JIS-Pt100 4wire type)
 Soil heat flux
 0.02, 0.05 m 
 Heat flux plate
 ( HF-01, REBS, The Netherlands)
 Soil water 
 0.05, 0.1, 0.2,  0.4,  0.5m TDR (CS616, Campbell, USA)
 Wind speed
 19.5 m 
 Propeller anemometer
 (5103, R.M.Young, USA)
 Wind direction
 19.5 m Propeller anemometer
 (5103, R.M.Young, USA)
 17.2 m Silicon capacitive pressure sensor  (PTB210, VAISALA, Finland)
 Precipitation 19.1 m Tipping bucket gauge
 (T34, Ohta keiki, Japan)
 19.7 m CO2/H2O analyzer
 Soil respiration
 Closed chamber measurements in 2005  and 2006
 Photosynthesis None
 Ecological investigation
 Four permanent plots
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 Early June to early September  since 2004, but digital datasets are  not allowed to bring out of Russia  under FSTEC regulation.  Measurements are continued
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2004 in AsiaFlux DataBase 
 Yojiro Matsura (orijoy [at] ffpri.affrc.go.jp )
 [Tree Census] Takuya Kajimoto (tkaji [at] ffpri.affrc.go.jp)
 Department of Forest Site EnvironmentForestry and Forest Products  Research Institute1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8687 Japan
 Tel:+81-29-829-8227 Fax:+81-29-874-3720

Calibration Information
 Open-path IRGA was calibrated against standard gases, before and  after the whole measurement period of the year (=the growing season).

 Integrated results of Tura was published as one of series in Ecological  Studies Volume 209, titled “Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian Larch  Forests”, eds. by Osawa, Zyryanova, Matsuura, Kajimoto, Wein.

Research Fund
 Global Environment Research Fund S-1 (FY2002-2006) by Ministry of  Environment, Japan

 Global Environment Research Fund B-053 (FY2005-2007) by Ministry  of Environment, Japan

 JSPS program 08037711 (FY2008-2009)

 JSPS program 22405027 (FY2010-2013)