TSE: Teshio CC-LaG experiment site

General site detail (Updated 18 April 2009)
 Site name
 Teshio CC-LaG experiment site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Teshio Experimental Forest, Toikanbetsu,  Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position 45°03' 21"N, 142° 06' 26"E
 Elevation Elevation: ca.70m, a.s.l.
 Slope < 8 deg
 Terrain type
 Flat Terrace
 Area 13.7 ha (Clear-cutting area), however, same  vegetation type extends ca. >1 km for each  direction before clear-cutting
 Fetch >1 km (mixed forest), 200-500 m
 (after clear-cutting)
 Climate Cool temperate
 Mean annual air temperature
 5.7 degC
 Mean annual precipitation
 1000 mm
 Vegetation type
 Conifer-Hardwood mixed forest until January, 2003,  Young larch plantation from late October 2003 (ca.  30000 saplings (ca. 2500 saplings ha-1; 0.04 tC     ha-1))
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Quercus crispula, Betula ermanii, Betula platyphylla  var. japonica, Abies sachalinensis, Picea jezoensis  (mixed forest), hybrid (Larix gmelinii × L. kaempferi)  larch (young larch plantation)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Sasa senanensis and Sasa kurilensis
 Canopy height
 18-25 m (mixed forest), 
 1-2.5 m (larch  plantation in 2006)
 Age Large trees in the clear-cutting area were more than  200-years old(Tsuji et al., 2006). In Autumn 2003, 2  year-old larch saplings were planted.
 LAI 3 and 4-4.5 in a full-growing period for canopy and  Sasa layer, respectively in the mixed forest, Larch  LAI in the stripe-cut row is ca. max 1.3 in 2005 and  Sasa in the remained row is increasing (ca. max  5.7 in 2005) after the clear-cutting (measured by  LAI-2000, LI-COR)
 Soil type
 The bedrock was Cretaceous sedimentary rock.  The dominant soil was a Gleyic Cambisol (FAO  1988) with about 10 cm of O horizon, with a mor  humus type, 20 cm of A horizon, and 30 cm of B  horizon

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-(periodic & continuous from Apr. 2006) & Closed-path  systems (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer (KAIJO, DA600-3TV, TR-  61C), Sensor span: 20 cm, Height at 32 m, ca. 10 m above  canopy surface. After the clear-cut (from June 2003),  another sonic anemometer-thermometer (KAIJO, DA600-  3TV, TR-61A) has been set near the ground
 Air temperature
 same as air wind speed
 Water vapor
 Before clear cut:
 [Open-path method (periodic)] NDIR-gas analyzer (Data  Design Group , OP-2), Sensor span: 20 cm, Separation  distance: 20 cm, Height at 32 m, ca. 10 m above canopy  surface, 
 [Closed-path method] NDIR-gas analyzer(LI-COR, LI-  7000), Distance between gas inlet and NDIR: 6m, Height  of gas inlet: 32 m, ca. 10 m above canopy surface, Distance  between gas inlet and anemometer: 15 cm.
 After clear cut:
 [Open-path method (periodic)] NDIR-gas analyzer (Data  Design Group , OP-2), Sensor span: 20 cm, Separation  distance: 30 cm, Height at 4.6 m, ca. 4 m above canopy  surface (from June to Septerber 2003), NDIR-gas analyzer  (LI-7500 , LICOR),Sensor span: 12.5 cm, Separation  distance: 20 cm, Height at 4.6 m, ca. 3 m (in 2006) above  canopy surface (from April 2006) 
 [Closed-path method] Two NDIR-gas analyzers(LI-COR, LI-  7000), Distance between gas inlet and NDIR: 6 & 15 m,  Height of gas inlet: 32 & 4.6 m, ca. 30 & 3 (in 2005) m  above canopy surface, Distance between gas inlet and  anemometer: 15 & 5 cm. Flux measurement at 32m height  was until April 2007.
 CO2 same as water vapor
 Measurement height
 see above
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DRM3 (TEAC Corp) (until Oct 2003),
 CR5000 (CSI) (from Nov 2003)
 Data storage
 MO&HD(until Oct 2003), HD card&HD (from Nov 2003)
 Original data
 All the raw data are recorded and saved

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global radiation  (downward) 32 m Thermopile type pyranometer 
 (Kipp & Zonen, CM-21F)
 Shortwave  radiation  (downward) 32, 3 m Net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Shortwave  radiation (upward) 32, 3 m Net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Long-wave radiation(downward) 
 32, 3 m Thermopile type infrared radiometer (EPPLEY,  PIR only at 32m), Net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen,  CNR-1)
 Long-wave radiation(upward) 32, 3 m Net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 Net radiation
 32, 3 m Net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen, CNR-1)
 PPFD (incoming)
 32, 3 m Quantum sensor (EKO, ML-020P, Japan; From  May 2007)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 32, 3 m Quantum sensor (EKO, ML-020P, Japan; From  May 2007)
 Air temperature
 32, 21, 10, 4, 2  m Ventilated platinum resistance thermometer     (VAISALA, HMP45D; From April 2008)
 Humidity 32, 21, 10, 4, 2  m Ventilated HUMICAP hygrometer
 (VAISALA, HMP45D; From April 2008)
 Soil temperature
 -1, -5, -10, -20,  -40, -80, -120  cm (×1 profile),
 -1, -5, -10 cm  (×4 profiles)
 Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 -2 cm×5 points Heat flow transducer (REBS, HFT-1.1)
 Soil moisture
 -5, -10, -30, -60  cm (×1  profile), -5, -10  cm (×4 profiles) Water content reflectometer (CSI, CS615)
 Wind speed
 32, 21, 10, 4 m Photo-electric cup anemometer
 (MetOne, 010C; 32m)
 Ultrasonic wind sensor
 (Gill, WindSonic; 21, 10, 4m; From April 2008)
 Wind direction
 32 m Photo-electric wind vane (MetOne, 020C)
 Atmospheric  pressure 2 m  BAROCAP barometer
 Precipitation 3 m  0.1 mm-pulse tipping-bucket rain gauge with  heater (RM Young, CYG-52202)
 Snow depth
 Setting height:  ca. 4m Sonic ranging sensor (CSI, SR50)
 Soil respiration
 Automated closed chamber (Liang et. al.,  2003, Agricultural and forest meteorology,  123, 97-117) (June 2003-), 8 points for  larch saplings (2004-2005), 8 points for  Sasa (June 2004-) and 8 points for soil;  Sampling interval: every 1 hour in snow  free peri
 Photosynthesis Sasa & Larch data in the above chamber  measurement can be available for NEP  estimation.
 Ecological investigation
 LAI: Canopy and Sasa layers (LI-COR,  LAI-2000),Sampling interval : ca. every 2  weeks (May, 2001 - Decemver, 2002,  before the clear cut), Larch saplings and  remained Sasa rows (LI-COR, LAI-2000),  Sampling interval : ca. every 2 weeks to 1  month (from May, 2003 -, after the clear  cut) Biomass: 
 1. Tree DBH (and its inter-annual  change(2000-2002)), species, crown size  measurement in a 50×50 m quadrat  beside the tower (2000), (Koike et. al.,  2001 , Eurasian Journal of Forest  Research, 2, 65-79),
 2. Soil survey (2000, 2002),
 3. 14ha experiment site wood biomass  survey (2000) (Koike et. al., 2001,  Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 2,  65-79),
 4. Biomass research of Sasa species  (above and below the ground surface in  2001),
 5. Biomass researches for dominant  species (from 2001, 1 species for 1 year),
 6. Airborne LIDAR measurement (2002,  2004),
 7. Larch growth observation (every year),
 8. Fine root biomass & the turn over rate  (Fukuzawa et. al., 2006, Forest Ecology  and Management, 225, 257-261;  Fukuzawa et .al., 2006,
 Ecological Research, doi:  10.1007/s11284-006-0031-y)
 CH4  Soil Chamber (2013-)
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 From 2001
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2001-2002, 2004-2012 in AsiaFlux Database
 Kentaro Takagi (kentt [at] fsc.hokudai.ac.jp)
 Teshio Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern  BiosphereHokkaido UniversityToikanbetsu, Horonobe, Hokkaido
 098-2943, Japan
 Tel: +81-1632-6-5211 Fax: +81-1632-6-5003
 Nobuko Saigusa (n.saigusa [at] nies.go.jp)
 Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER),National Institute for  Environmental Studies (NIES)
 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
 Tel : +81-29-850-2976, 2517 Fax : +81-29-858-2645
 Tower: 32 m(Climbable)& 5m
 Electrical power: By commercial power line from February 2005.  AC100&200V are available.
 Facilities for communication: Mobile phone is available at the tower  top.
 Accommodation: A portable house of ca. 10 m2

 Research Fund

 Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Ministry of  Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

Other Information

 250 m south from power generators (until February 2005) and 200 m  west from unpaved road. There was a selection cutting in 1961 (15% of  trees) in this experimental area. Some trees around the tower had  been cut in advance, to prevent causing damage to the tower when  trees were clear-cut. During January to March 2003, trees in the area  of 13.7 ha were clear-cut. Preliminary research revealed that the total  biomass volume of trees in this area was 2193 m3 (Koike et. al., 2001,  Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 2, 65-79) and this cutting  removed the woods of 1203 m3 (ca. 19 tC ha-1) from this ecosystem.  Sasa bamboos (the above ground biomass is 6-12 tC ha?1) under the  snowpack had been kept intact during the clear-cutting period in  winter, however in order to plant larch saplings, those were strip-cut  into 4 m rows (a half of the clear cut area) seven month after the clear-  cutting and just before the plantation (late October 2003). ca. 30000  saplings (ca. 0.04 tC ha-1) of 2-year old hybrid larch were planted in  October 2003.


 Takagi, K, Kotsuka, C., Fukuzawa, K., Kayama, M., Makoto, K., Watanabe, T., Nomura, M., Fukazawa, T., Takahashi, H., Hojyo, H., Ashiya, D., Naniwa, A., Sugata, S., Kamiura T., Sugishita Y., Sakai, R., Ito, K., Kobayashi, M., Maebayashi, M., Mizuno, M., Murayama, T., Kinoshita, K., Fujiwara, D., Hashida, S., Shibata, H., Yoshida, T., Sasa, K., Saigusa, N., Fujinuma, Y. and Akibayashi, Y. (2009b) Allometric relationships and carbon and nitrogen contents for three major tree species (Quercus crispula, Betula ermanii, and Abies sachalinensis) in northern Hokkaido, Japan. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research

Hayashi, K., Takagi, K., Noguchi, I., Fukuzawa, K., Takahashi, H., Fukazawa, T., Shibata, H., Fujinuma, Y. Ammonia emission from a young larch ecosystem afforested after clear-cutting of a pristine forest in northernmost Japan. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, In press, doi: 10.1007/s11270-008-9891-9.

Takagi, K., Fukuzawa, K., Liang, N., Kayama, M., Nomura, M., Hojyo, H., Sugata, S., Shibata, H., Fukazawa, T., Nakaji, T., Oguma, H., Mano, M. Akibayashi, Y., Murayama, T., Koike, T., Sasa, K., Fujinuma, Y. Change in the CO2 balance under a series of forestry activities in a cool-temperate mixed forest with dense undergrowth. Global Change Biology, 15, 1275-1288.

Hirata, R., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Ohtani, Y., Ide, R., Asanuma, J., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kondo, H., Kosugi, Y., Nakai, Y., Takagi, K., Tani, M., and Wang, H. (2008) Spatial distribution of carbon balance in forest ecosystems across East Asia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, in press, doi10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.11.016.

Nakaji, T., Ide, R., Takagi, K., Kosugi, Y., Ohkubo, S., Nasahara, N.K., Saigusa, N., and Oguma, H. (2008) Utility of spectral vegetation indices for estimation of light conversion efficiency in coniferous forests in Japan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 776-787, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.11.006.

Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Hirata, R., Ohtani, Y., Ide, R., Asanuma, J., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kondo, H., Kosugi, Y., Li, S.-G., Nakai, Y., Takagi, K., Tani, M., and Wang, H. (2008) Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in East Asia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148, 700-713, doi10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.12.006.

Tsuji, H., Nakatsuka, T., Yamazaki, K., and Takagi, K. (2008) Summer relative humidity in northern Japan inferred from δ18O values of the tree-ring in (1776-2002 AD)-Influence of the paleoclimate indices of atmospheric circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D18103, doi: 10.1029/2007JD009080.

Fukuzawa, K., Shibata, H., Takagi, K., Satoh, F., Koike, T. and Sasa, K. (2007) Vertical distribution and seasonal pattern of fine-root dynamics in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan: implication of the understory vegetation, Sasa dwarf bamboo. Ecological Research, 22, 485-495.

Tsuji, H., Nakatsuka, T. and Takagi, K. (2006) δ18O of tree-ring cellulose in two species (spruce and oak) as proxies of precipitation amount and relative humidity in northern Japan. Chemical Geology, 231, 67-76.

Fukuzawa, K., Shibata, H., Takagi, K., Nomura, M., Kurima, N., Fukazawa, T., Satoh, F. and Sasa, K. (2006) Effects of clear-cutting on nitrogen leaching and fine root dynamics in a cool-temperate forested watershed in northern Japan. Forest Ecology and Management, 225, 257-261.

Takagi, K., Nomura, M., Ashiya, D., Takahashi, H., Sasa, K., Fujinuma, Y., Shibata, H., Akibayashi, Y. and Koike, T. (2005) Dynamic carbon dioxide exchange through snowpack by wind-driven mass transfer in a conifer-broadleaf mixed forest in northernmost Japan. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB2012, doi: 10.1029/2004GB002272.

Takagi, K., Nomura, M., Fukuzawa, K., Kayama, M., Shibata, H., Sasa, K., Koike, T., Akibayashi, Y., Fujinuma, Y., Inukai, K. and Maebayashi, M. (2005) Deforestation effects on the micrometeorology in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 60, 1025-1028.

Kayama, M., Kitaoka, S., Koike, T., Quoreshi, A.M., Takagi, K., Satoh, F., Wang, W., Shi, F., Sugata, S., Hojyo, H., Sugishita, Y., Nomura, M., Akibayashi, Y., Matsuura, Y. and Sasa, K. (2001) Photosynthetic capacity of hybrid larch and dwarf bamboo grown in the Teshio Experimental Forest located at the border between Russia and Japan. NIES/CGER report of the National Institute of Environmental Studies, 105-108.

Wang, W., Kitaoka, S., Koike, T., Quoreshi, A.M., Takagi, K., Kayama, M., Ishida, N., Mamiya, H., Shi, F., Zu, Y. and Sasa, K. (2001) Respiration of non-photosynthetic organs and forest soil of Japanese larch plantation and its contribution to CO2 flux estimation. NIES/CGER report of the National Institute of Environmental Studies, 119-123.

Shi, F., Xiangwei, C., Wang, W., Takagi, K., Akibayashi, Y., Sasa, K. and Uemura, S. (2001) Vegetation Characteristics of a Larch-dominant Site for CO2 Flux: Monitoring Study at the Laoshan Experimental Station in Northeast China. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 3: 55-67.

Koike, T., Hojyo, H., Naniwa, A., Ashiya, D., Sugata, S., Sugishita, Y., Kobayashi, M., Nomura, M., Akibayashi, Y., Nakajima, J., Takagi, K., Shibata, H., Satoh, F., Wang, W., Takada, M., Fujinuma, Y., Shi, F., Matsuura, Y. and Sasa, K. (2001) Basic data of the study site for CO2 flux monitoring of a young larch plantation located in the border between northern Japan and far east Russia--Current status of a mature mixed conifer-hardwood forest stand --. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 2, 65-79.