TOE:Tomakomai Experimental Forest
General site detail (Updated 4 November 2008)
 Site name
 Tomakomai Experimental Forest
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position Flux 42°40”N, 141°36'E 
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Elevation alt 60m
 Slope Flat
 Terrain type
 Area 2715 ha
 Fetch 5m (South East)
 Climate Cool temperate
 Mean annual air temperature
 Mean annual precipitation
 1200 mm 
 Vegetation type
 Deciduous broad-leaved forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Quercus crispula, Betula platyphyla, Acer mono
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Dwarf bamboo
 Canopy height
 16 m
 Age Ca. 54 years old (in 2008)
 LAI 4-6
 Soil type
 Volcanogenous regosol

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed path system (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer 
 (Kaijo DAT-600, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer
 (Kaijo DAT-600, Japan)
 Water vapor
 Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 CO2 Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers 
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 21 m 
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DR-M3(1999-2008), LX-100 (2008-) TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 32.5 m MS-401F, EKO, Tokyo, Japan
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) - 
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 32.5 m1998- 2005 (ML-020P, EKO Inc., Tokyo, Japan)  after 2005 ( LI1-90SB, LI-COR, NE, USA)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 19 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP-45D, Vaisala)
 Humidity 19 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP-45D, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 0, 0.05, 0.1,  0.2, 0.5, 1 m Platinum resistance thermometer
 (Yokogawa Weathac Corp., Tokyo, Japan)
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 Wind speed
 33 m Anemometer 
 (CW-154, Ogasawara Inc., Tokyo, Japan) 
 Wind direction
 33 m Anemometer 
 (CW-154, Ogasawara Inc., Tokyo, Japan) 
 Precipitation 0 m Tipping-bucket rain gauge (B001, Yokogawa  Weathac Inc., Tokyo, Japan)
 21 m CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 In 1999 by LI-6400
 Photosynthesis For Q.cricpula in 1999 by LI-6400
 Ecological investigation
 Tree census at every year
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Tsutom Hiura (hiura [at]
 Yumiko Tanaka
 053-0035 Tomakomai Research Station, Hokkaido Univ., 
 Takaoka, Tomakomai, Japan

 Research Fund
 IGBP-MESSC (1997-2001)


 Shibata et al. (2005) Ecological Research 20: 325-331

 Tanaka et al. (2001) Proceedings of International Workshop for  Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation,CGER-Report, CGER-M-  011-2001: 133-137

 Takanashi et al. (2005) Ecological Research 20:

 Hiura (2005) Ecological Research 20: 271-277

 Hikoska, al. (2007) Tree Physiology 27: 1035-1041.

 Nabeshima, E. and Hiura, T. (2004) Tree Physiology 24: 745-752.

 Ishii, H. et al(2004) Forest Science 50: 342-355.

 Nabeshima, E. and Hiura, T. (2008) Ecological Research 23: 281-288.

 Kobayashi et al(2002) ISTS 12: 1-3.

 Fukushima et al. (1998) Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 92: 203-  210.