TMK: Tomakomai Flux Research Site

General site detail (Updated 18 April 2008)
 Site name
 Tomakomai Flux Research Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position 42º 44' 13.1" N,141º 31' 7.1" E
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Elevation 140 m above sea level
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Slope 1-2 deg
 Terrain type
 Area 117 ha
 Fetch 300-800 m
 Climate Cool temperate
 Mean annual air temperature
 6.2 degC (2001-2003)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1043 mm (2001-2003)
 Vegetation type
 Japanese larch forest 
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Japanese larch (Larix Kaempferi Sarg.), Birch  (Betula ermanii and Betula platyphylla), Japanese  elm (Ulmus japonica),Spruce (Picea jezoensis)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Fern (Dryopteris crassirhizoma, Dryopteris  austriaca) and Pachysandra terminalis
 Canopy height
 15 m
 Age About 45 years old
 (Larch trees were planted in 1955-1959.)
 LAI 9.2 m2 m-2 (Overstory: 5.6 m2 m-2, Understory: 3.6  m2 m-2) (maximum)
 Soil type
 Volcanogenous regosol

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open- and closed-path systems (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3TV (Probe TR-61C), KAIJO)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3TV (Probe TR-61C), KAIJO)
 Water vapor
 Open- and Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers
 (LI-7500 and LI-6262, LI-COR)
 CO2 Open- and Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers 
 (LI-7500 and LI-6262, LI-COR)
 Measurement height
 27 and 42 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 DRM3a, TEAC, Japan
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 41, 18, 14, 5, 1.5
 (six points) m 
 40, 18, 1.5 m
 Pyranometer (MS-601, Eko, Japan)  Radiometer (MR40, Eko, Japan)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 40, 18, 1.5 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 40, 18, 1.5 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 40, 18, 1.5 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan)
 Net radiation
 40, 18, 1.5 m Radiometer (MR-40, Eko, Japan)
 PPFD (incoming)
 40, 18, 5, 1.5 
 (three points) m
 Quantum sensor (LI-190S, LI-COR)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 40 m Quantum sensor (LI-190S, LI-COR)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 40, 27, 22, 18, 14,  8,  5, 1.5 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP-45D, Vaisala)
 Humidity 40, 27, 22, 18, 14,  8, 5, 1.5 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer (HMP-45D, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 m (three points) Platinum resistance thermometer
 Soil heat flux
 0.05 m (five points) Heat flux plate (MF-81, Eko, Japan)
 TDR sensor (CS615, Campbell)
 Soil water 
 0.05 (three points),  0.1 (two points) m TDR sensor (CS615, Campbell)
 Wind speed
 40, 27, 23, 18,14,  8.0, 5.0, 1.5 m Sonic anemometer (MA-130A, Eko, Japan)
 Wind direction
 40, 27, 23,  18,14, 8.0, 5.0,  1.5 m Sonic anemometer (MA-130A, Eko, Japan)
 40, 18, 8, 5 m Barometer (PTB100, Vaisala)
 Precipitation 41, 1.5
 (three points) m
 Tipping-bucket rainguage with heater 
 (52 202, R. M. Young)
 41, 38, 32, 26,  22, 16, 12, 6, 3,  1 m Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzer
 (LI-6262, LI-COR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Continuous (automated chambers)
 Photosynthesis Occasionally 
 Ecological investigation
 Tree heights, stand density, diameter,  biomass, LAI (1999, 2001, 2003)
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 September 2000 to September  2004
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2001-2003 in AsiaFlux Database
 Nobuko Saigusa (n.saigusa [at]
 Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER),National Institute for  Environmental Studies (NIES)
 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
 Tel : +81-29-850-2976, 2517 Fax : +81-29-858-2645
 [Flux] Ryuichi Hirata (hirata.ryuichi [at]
 [Isotope] Yoshiyuki Takahashi (yoshiyu [at]
 [Soil respiration] Naishen Liang (liang [at]
 Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER),National Institute for  Environmental Studies (NIES)
 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
 [Flux] Takashi Hirano (hirano [at]
 Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University
 [Soil respiration, Photosynthesis] Takayoshi Koike
  (tkoike[at], Hokkaido University
 [Remote sensing] Hiroaki Oguma, Tomomi Takeda, Tatsuro Nakaji,  CGER/NIES, Yasumitsu Yone, Shimane University
 Calibration Information
 Open-path analyzers were calibrated approximately every two months  with standard CO2 gases and a dew point generator (LI610, LI-COR).

 The gain of CO2 of the closed-path analyzers was checked once a day  by flowing two standard CO2 gases of 320 ppmv and 420 ppmv that  were automatically controlled using a CR23X (Campbell).

Tower, Electrical power(AC)


Flux/Synthesis analysis
Hirata, R., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Ohtani, Y., Ide, R., Asanuma, J., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kondo, H., Kosugi, Y., Li, S-G., Nakai, Y., Takagi, K., Tani, M., Wang, H. 2008 Spatial distribution of carbon balance in forest ecosystems across East Asia, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.11.016

Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Hirata, R., Ohtani, Y., Ide, R., Asanuma, J., Gamo, M., Hirano, T., Kondo, H., Kosugi, Y., Li, S-G., Nakai, Y., Takagi, K., Tani, M., Wang, H. 2008, Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in East Asia, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.12.006

Soil respiration/Isotope
Takahashi, Y., Liang, N. 2008. Development of chamber-based sampling technique for determination of carbon stable isotope ratio of soil respired CO2 and evaluation of influence of CO2 enrichment in chamber headspace, Geochemical Journal. (accepted)

Takahashi, Y., Liang, N., Hirata, R., Machida, T., Fujinuma, Y. 2008. Variability in carbon stable isotope ratio of heterotrophic respiration in a deciduous needle-leaf forest, Journal of Geophysical Research- Biogeosciences. (accepted)

Proximal Remote Sensing
Nakaji, T., Ide, R., Takagi, K., Kosugi, Y., Ohkubo, S., Nishida, K., Saigusa, N., Oguma, H. 2008. Utility of spectral vegetation indices for estimation of light conversion efficiency in coniferous forests in Japan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.11.006

Takeda, T., Oguma, H., Sano, T., Yone, Y., Fujinuma, Y. 2008. Estimating the plant area density of a Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi Sarg.) plantation using a ground-based laser scanner, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.10.004


Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Saigusa, N., Fujinuma, Y., Inukai, K., Kitamori, Y., Yamamoto, S. 2007. Seasonal and interannual variations in carbon dioxide exchange of a temperate larch forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 147: 110-124.Kobayashi, N., Hiyama, T., Fukushima, Y., Lopez, M.L., Fujinuma, Y. 2007. Nighttime transpiration observed over a larch forest in Hokkaido, Japan, Water Resources Research, 43: W03407, doi:10.1029/2006WR005556.

Ono, K., Hirata, R., Mano, M., Miyata, A., Saigusa, N., Inoue, Y. 2007. Systematic differences in CO2 fluxes measured by open- and closed-path eddy covariance systems: Influence of air density fluctuations resulting from temperature and water vapor transfer, Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 63: 139-155. (in Japanese with English summary)

Proximal Remote SensingNakaji, T., Ide, R., Oguma, H., Saigusa, N., Fujinuma, Y. 2007. Utility of spectral vegetation index for estimation of gross CO2 flux under varied sky conditions, Remote Sensing of Environment, 109:274-284.


Trace gas
Ieda, T., Kitamori, Y., Mochida, M., Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Inukai, K., Fujinuma, Y., Kawamura, K. 2006. Diurnal variations and vertical gradients of biogenic volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds at the Tomakomai larch forest station in Japan, Tellus, 58B: 177-186.

Kishihara, Y., Ueyama, M., Hamotani, K., Monji, N. 2006. Vertical distribution of CO2 flux within and above a larch forest -Experimental and numerical approach-, Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 62: 9-14.

Flux/Modeling/Gap filling
Ooba, M., Hirano, T., Mogami, J., Hirata, R., Fujinuma, Y. 2006. Comparisons of gap-filling methods for carbon flux data set: a combination of a genetic algorithm and an artificial neural network, Ecological Modeling, 198:473-486.

Proximal Remote Sensing
Nakaji, T., Oguma, H., Fujinuma, Y. 2006. Seasonal changes in the relationship between photochemical reflectance index and photosynthetic light use efficiency of Japanese larch needles, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27:493-509.


Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Mogami, J., Fujinuma, Y., Inukai, K., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S. 2005. CO2 flux measured by an open-path system over a larch forest during snow-covered season. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 347-351.Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Okada, K., Fujinuma, Y. Inukai, K., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S. 2005. Effects of wind speed and direction on eddy fluxes over a larch plantation, Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 60, 741-744.

Wang, H., Saigusa, H., Zu, Y., Yamamoto, S., Kondo, H., Yang, F., Wang, W., Hirano, T., Fujinuma, Y. 2005. Response of CO2 flux to environmental variables in two larch forest ecosystems in East Asia. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 339-346.

Liang, N., Fujinuma, Y., Inoue, G. 2005. Photosynthesis and respiration of Japanese larch -continuous measured with a multichannel automated chamber system-. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60: 797-800

Wood respiration
Liang, N., Fujinuma, Y., Inoue, G. 2005. Measurement of wood CO2 efflux using a multichannel automated chamber system. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 109-115.

Leaf litter decomposition
Kim, H., Hirano, T., Koike, T., Urano, S. 2005. Contribution of litter CO2 production to total soil respiration in two different deciduous forests. Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 385-388.

Kim, H., Hirano, T., Urano, S. 2005. Seasonal variation in CO2 production of leaf litter from different deciduous forests at the early decomposition stage, Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 61: 95-104.

Proximal Remote SensingTakeda, T., Oguma, H., Yone, Y. 2005. Comparison of leaf area density measured by laser range finder and stratified clipping method, Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 505-510.

Yone, Y., Oguma, H., Yamagata, Y., Fujinuma, Y. 2005. Development of measurement system for evaluating forest ecosystems: Measurement method of aboveground biomass growth by using air borne laser survey, Phyton-Annales Rei Botanicae, 45: 517-524.

Mogami, J., Hirano, T., Hirata, R., Kitaoka, S., Koike, T., Fujinuma, Y. 2005. Variation in Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density on a Larch Forest, Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 60: 1161-1163.


Wang, H., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Kondo, H., Hirano, T., Toriyama, A., Fujinuma, F. 2004. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange over a larch forest in Hokkaido, Japan. Atmospheric Environment, 38: 7021-7032.

Soil respiration
Liang, N., Nakadai, T., Hirano, T., Qu, L., Koike, T., Fujinuma, Y., Inoue, G. 2004. In situ comparison of four approaches to estimating soil CO2 efflux in a northern larch (Larix kaempferi Sarg.). Agricultural and Forest Metrology, 123: 97-117.


Hirano, T., Hirata, R., Fujinuma, Y., Saigusa, N., Yamamoto, S., Harazono, Y., Takada, M., Inukai, K, Inoue, G. 2003. CO2 and water vapor exchange of a larch forest in northern Japan. Tellus. 55B: 244-257.Miura, M., Hirano, T., Hirata, R., Mogami, J., Inukai, K., Fujinuma. 2003. Effect of heat strage flux on energy balance in a Larch Forest. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 59: 245-250. (in Japanese with English summary)


Nakai, Y., Saigusa, N., Hirano, T., Evans, R., Ohtani, Y., Hirata, R., Toriyama, A., Kitamura, K., Suzuki, S., Yamamoto, S. 2002. A field experiment in August 2002 for the comparison of eddy-flux systems between AsiaFlux and AmeriFlux. Journal of Japan Society Hydrology & Water Resources. 15, 665-672. (in Japanese) (Technical report)

Proximal Remote Sensing
Oguma, H., Tsuchida, S., Fujinuma, Y. 2002. The development of a hyper-spectral camera system for the forest monitoring, Journal of the.Remote Sensing Society of Japan, 22(5): 588-597 (in Japanese)

Omasa, K., Urano, Y., Oguma, H., Fujinuma, Y. 2002. Mapping of tree position of Larix leptolepis woods and estimation of diameter at breast height(DBH) and biomass of the trees using range data measured by a portable scanning lidar, Journal of the.Remote Sensing Society of Japan., 22(5): 550-557. (in Japanese)

Yone, Y., Oguma, H., Yamagata, Y. 2002. Development of measurement system for the carbon sinks under the Kyoto Protocol -Measurement of stem volume and carbon weight of Larix leptolepis stand by airborne lidar-, Journal of the.Remote Sensing Society of Japan, 22(5): 531-543. (in Japanese)