TKY:Takayama deciduous broadleaf forest site
                 
General site detail (Updated on 24 November 2023)
 Site name
 Takayama deciduous broadleaf forest site
 AsiaFlux site code
 TKY
 Location Takayama, Gifu, Japan
 Position 36º 08' 46.2" N, 137º 25' 23.2" E (WGS84)
 Elevation 1420 m above sea level (WGS84)
 Slope 5-15º
 Terrain type
 Complex terrain
 Area 50,000 m2
 Fetch 300~1000 m (depending on wind direction)
 Climate Cool temperate 
 (Snow - fully humid - warm summer (Dfb))
 Mean annual air temperature
 6.7 ºC (mean of 1994-2022 at the flux tower)
 Mean annual precipitation
 2275 mm (mean of 1980-2002, data from the  Takayama Research Station of IBES, ca. 500 m  south of the flux tower)
 Vegetation type
 Cool temperate deciduous forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Birch (Betula), 
 
Deciduous oak (Quercus crispula Blume)
 Dominant species (Understory)
  Bamboo grass
 (Sasa senanensis
(Franch. et Sav.) Rehd.)
 Canopy height
 15-20 m
 Age 60-70 years (as of 2023)
 LAI Trees (about 5.5 m2 m-2 from June to September),  bamboo bush (about 1.7 m2 m-2)
 Soil type
 Brown forest soil (Dystric Cambisol)

Observations
Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Closed-path system
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3TV (Probe TR-61A), KAIJO)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (DA600-3TV (Probe TR-61A), KAIJO)
 Water vapor
 Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers (LI-6262, LI-COR)
 CO2 Closed Path CO2/H2O analyzers (LI-6262, LI-COR)
 Measurement height
 25 m
 Sampling frequency
 5 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 (1998 - Mar. 2008) DRM3a, TEAC, Japan
 (Mar. 2008 - present) CR3000, Campbell Scientific, USA
 Data storage
 (1998 - Mar. 2008) Magneto-Optical Disk
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Compact Flash Memory
 Original data
 Raw data

Meteorology
 Observation items
 Levels/ Depth
 Instrument 
 Global solar radiation (incoming)
 25.5 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) Albedo meter, MR21, EKO  
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Net radiometer, MR-50, EKO
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 25.5 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) Albedo meter, MR21, EKO  
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Net radiometer, MR-50, EKO
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 24.5 - 25.5 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) 24.5 m, Infrared radiometer, MS201, EKO  
 (Mar. 2008 - present) 25.5 m, Net radiometer, MR-50, EKO
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 24.5 - 25.5 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) 24.5 m, Infrared radiometer, MS201, EKO  
 (Mar. 2008 - present) 25.5 m, Net radiometer, MR-50, EKO
 Net radiation
 24.5 - 25.5 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) Albedo meter, MR21, EKO and Infrared radiometer, MS201, EKO
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Net radiometer, MR-50m, EKO
 PPFD (incoming)
 Above canopy,
 2.0 m
 Above canopy:
 Estimated from meteorological data (Mizoguchi et al., 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0912-2)
 2.0 m:
 (1998 - 2018) Quantum sensor, IKS27, Koito
 (2019) no available data
 (2020 - present) Quantum sensor, SQ-110, Apogee
 PPFD (outgoing)
 19.5 m (1998 - Oct.2018) Quantum sensor, IKS27, Koito
 (Oct.2018 - present) Quantum sensor, SQ-110, Apogee
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 - -
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 - -
 Air temperature
 25, 18, 10 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) Platinum resistance thermometer, HMP233, Vaisala
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Platinum resistance thermometer, HMP45A, Vaisala
 Humidity 25, 18, 10 m (1998 - Mar. 2008) Humicap hygrometer, HMP233, Vaisala
 (Mar. 2008 - present) Humicap hygrometer, HMP45A, Vaisala
 Soil temperature
 0.01, 0.1, 0.2,
 0.5 m
 0.01 m: Platinum resistance thermometer, MT-010S, EKO
 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 m:
 (1998 - May 2009) Platinum resistance thermometer, MT-010S, EKO
 (May 2009 - present) Platinum resistance thermometer, C-PTG-10, Climatec
 Soil heat flux
 0.02 m
 Soil heat flux plate, MF81, EKO
 Soil water 
 content 
 0.15, 0.4 m
 0.15 m:
 (1998 - Oct. 2010) TDR soil water content sensor, CS615,  Campbell
 (Oct. 2010 - present) TDR soil water content sensor, CS616, Campbell
 0.4 m:
 (1998 - Aug. 2012) TDR soil water content sensor, CS615, Campbell
 (Aug. 2012 - present) TDR water content sensor, CS616, Campbell
 It is calibrated occasionally by oven drying of soil samples.
 Wind speed
 25, 10 m Combined wind vane and fan anemometer,
 MA-110, EKO
 Wind direction
 25, 10 m Combined wind vane and fan anemometer,
 MA-110, EKO
 Barometric 
 pressure
 1.5 m (1998 - Jan. 2005) Barometer, 1332A-10, Rosemount
 (Jan. 2005 - May 2014) Barometer, PMP4060, Druck
 (May 2014 - Feb. 2019) Barometer, RPT410, Druck
 (Feb. 2019 - present) Barometer, PTB110, Vaisala
 Precipitation  None at the site, but obtained from nearby  stations.
 COconcentration
 27, 18, 8.8, 5.8,
 2, 1.3 m
 (1998 - Aug. 2003) Non dispersive infrared gas analyzer, Model 880, Beckman
 (Aug. 2003 - present) Non dispersive infrared gas analyzer, LI-6252 or LI-6262, LI-COR

Soil respiration
 Measurement method
 Continuous measurement:
 (1994-2005) Open-flow Chamber System (OF);
 (2005-2013) Automated Chamber System (AOCC);
 Periodical measurements:
 Closed-chamber method (CC) with 100 points
 References for method
 OF: Mo et al. (2005); AOCC: Kishimoto-Mo et al. (2015);
 CC: Jia et al. (2003).
 Measuring system
 OF: Li-6262 attached with self-made open flow system;
 AOCC: BINOS attached with an automated chamber and flow system; CC: Manual gas sampling with syringe and vacuum vials and offline analysis using GC (TCD detector).
 IRGA See above
 Flow control
 OF: 1.0-1.2 L/min; AOCC: 1.35 L/min
 Chamber type
 Round, PVC
 Chamber size
 OF/CC: 21 cm in internal diameter and 15 cm in height, and set 5 cm into the soil; AOCC: 20 cm internal diameter, 25 cm tall, and set 5 cm into the soil.
 Number of chambers
 OF: 4; AOCC: 4-5; CC: 100
 Measuring intervals
 OF: daily measurement in every week or twice weeks;
 AOCC: continuously measurement in snow-free season;
 CC: September of 1999 and 2000
 Is the ground covered by snow in winter?
 Yes; reference to Mariko et al. (2000), Mo et al. (2015),
 Yonemura et al. (2013), Sakurai et al. (2015).
 Original data
 Statistics
 Temperature and air pressure correction
 Chamber temperature and onsite air pressure for OF and AOCC; CC flux calculation using chamber temperature.

Other
 Soil respiration
 
 Photosynthesis Periodical measurements for canopy and  shrub tree species, and dwarf bamboo  grass in understory (A-Ci curve by LI-6400)
 Ecological Investigation
 Individual tree biomass by DBH measurement once per year
 Litter fall  measurements (14 x 1m2)
 Fine root  biomass and growth by mini-rhizotron
 LAI Obtained from Plant Canopy Analyzer on an occasional basis, while calculated on a continuous basis from the attenuation of  PAR
 Air sampling CO2 concentration and its carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios, and O2/N2 and Ar/N2 ratios.
 O2/N2 ratio
 Continuous measurement: (2021-)
 
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 September 28, 1993 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Continuous
 Data Availability
 1998-2007 in AsiaFlux Database 
 [CO2 concentration]
 World Data  Centre for Greenhouse  Gases  (WDCGG)
Contact
 [General] Shohei Murayama (s.murayama[at]aist.go.jp)
 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
 AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569  Japan
 TEL: + 81-29-861-8320    FAX: + 81-29-861-8358
 [Flux] Nobuko Saigusa (n.saigusa[at]nies.go.jp)
 National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)
 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
 TEL: +81-29-850-2517     FAX: +81-29-858-2645
 [Soil respiration, Photosynthesis, Ecological Investigation
 Hiroyuki Muraoka (muraoka.hiroyuki.y6[at]f.gifu-u.ac.jp)

 River Basin Research Center, Gifu University
 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193  Japan
 [CO2 concentration] Shohei Murayama (s.murayama[at]aist.go.jp)
 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
 [Micrometeorology] Hiroaki Kondo (kondo-hrk[at]aist.go.jp)
 [O2/N2 and Ar/N2 ratios] Shigeyuki Ishidoya (s-ishidoya[at]aist.go.jp)
Research Fund
 The Global Environment Research Coordination System from the
 Ministry of the Environment, Japan (Grant Number MAFF0751,
 MAFF1251, MAFF2254)
 The Global Environment Research Fund of the Ministry of the
 Environment, Japan (S-1)
 JSPS KAKENHI

Infrastructure
 Tower, Electrical power (AC)


Publication

 The updated publications from 1999 to 2023.
 Please click here -> Publications_TKY.pdf.

 Hirata et al. (2008) Spatial distribution of carbon balance in forest ecosystems across East Asia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148: 761-775Ito et al. (2006) Seasonal variation in leaf properties and ecosystem carbon budget in a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest: simulation analysis at Takayama site, Japan. Ecological Research 21:137-149.

Ito et al. (2007) Examination of model-estimated ecosystem respiration by use of flux measurement data from a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan. Tellus 59B, 616-624

Jia et al. (2003) Temporal and spatial variability of soil respiration in a cool temperate broad-leaved forest. 1. Measurement of spatial variance and factor analysis. Japanese Journal of Ecology 53: 13-22. (in Japanese with English abstract)

Kodo et al. (2001) A numerical simulation of the daily variation of CO2 in the central part of Japan -summer case-, Journal of Meteorological Society of Japan., 79, 11-21.

Kondo et al. (2005) Refixation of respired CO2 by understory vegetation in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 110-121

Lee et al. (2002) Effects of rainfall events on soil CO2 flux in a cool temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest. Ecological Research 17: 401-409.

Lee et al. (2003) Seasonal changes in the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest. Plant and Soil 255: 311-318

Lee et al. (2005) The importance of root respiration in annual soil carbon fluxes in a cool-temperate deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 95-101.

Lee et al. (2006) Soil respiration of forest ecosystems in Japan and global implications. Ecological Research 21: 828-839.

Mariko et al. (2000) Measurement of CO2 fluxes from soil and snow surfaces with open dynamic chamber technique. Environmental Sciences 13: 69-74.

Mariko et al. (2000) Winter CO2 flux from soil and snow surfaces in a cool-temperate deciduous forest, Japan. Ecological Research 15: 363-372

Mikami et al. (2006) Automatic detection of forest canopy gaps and estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using the digital fish-eye camera's images. Journal of the Japan Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 45: 13-22. (in Japanese with English abstract)

Mo et al. (2005a) Interannual variation in CO2 effluxes from soil and snow surfaces in a cool-Temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest. Phyton 45 (4): 99-107.

Mo et al. (2005b) Seasonal and annual variations in soil respiration in a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 81-94.

Muraoka & Koizumi (2005) Photosynthetic and structural characteristics of canopy and shrub trees in a cool-temperate deciduous forest: implication to the ecosystem carbon gain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 39-59.

Muraoka H & Koizumi H (2006) Leaf and shoot ecophysiological properties and their role in photosynthetic carbon gain of cool-temperate deciduous forest trees. In: Kawatata H and Awaya Y (eds.) Global climate change and response of carbon cycle in the Equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and adjacent landmasses. Elsevier Oceanography series vol. 73, Elsevier, pp.417-443

Murayama et al. (2003) Temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration in a temperate deciduous forest in central Japan. Tellus 55B: 232-243.

Murayama et al. (2005) Statistical analyses of inter-annual variations in the vertical profile of atmospheric CO2 concentration and carbon budget in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 17-26.

Nishimura et al. (2004) Evaluation of carbon budgets of a forest floor Sasa senanensis community in a cool-temperate forest ecosystem, central Japan. Japanese Journal of Ecology 54: 143-158. (in Japanese with English abstract)

Noguchi et al. (2007),Biomass and production of fine roots in Japanese forests. Journal of Forest Research 12: 83-95.

Ohtsuka et al. (2005) Biometric based estimates of net primary production (NPP) in a cool-temperate deciduous forest stand beneath a flux tower. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 27-38.

Saigusa et al. (2002) Gross primary production and net ecosystem production of a cool-temperate deciduous forest estimated by the eddy covariance method. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 112: 203-215.

Saigusa et al. (2005) Inter-annual variability of carbon budget components in an AsiaFlux forest site estimated by long-term flux measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 4-16.

Saigusa et al. (2005) Inter-annual variability of carbon budget components in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in Japan (Takayama, AsiaFlux). Phyton 45: 81-88.

Saigusa et al. (2008) Temporal and spatial variations in the seasonal patterns of CO2 flux in boreal, temperate, and tropical forests in East Asia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 148: 700-713

Sakai & Akiyama (2005) Quantifying the spatio-temporal variability of net primary production of the understory species, Sasa senanesis, using multipoint measuring techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 60-69.

Sakai et al. (2005) Microsite variation in light availability and photosynthesis in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in central Japan. Ecological Research 20: 537-545.

Sakai et al. (2006) The contribution of gross primary production of understory dwarf bamboo, Sasa senanensis, in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 236: 259-267.

Satomura et al. (2006) Seasonal patterns of fine root demography in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in central Japan. Ecological Research 21: 741-753.

Uchida et al. (2005) Microbial activity and litter decomposition under snow cover in a cool-temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 134: 102-109.

Yamaji et al. (2008) Scaling-up technique for net ecosystem productivity of deciduous broadleaved forests in Japan using MODIS data, Ecological Research, 23, 765-775

Yamamoto et al. (1999) Seasonal and inter-annual variation of CO2 flux between a temperate forest and the atmosphere in Japan. Tellus 51B: 402-413.