TKC:Takayama evergreen coniferous forest site

General site detail (Updated 23 May 2011)
 Site name
 Takayama evergreen coniferous forest site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Takayama, Gifu, Japan
 Position 36º 08' 23" N, 137º 22' 15" E 
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS)
 Elevation 800m above sea level 
 (World Geodetic System 1984, GPS)
 Slope 20.8 deg
 Terrain type
 Mountainous area
 Area 150 ha (Continuous forest area), 
 0.15 ha (Ecological experimental area)
 Fetch 200-1500 m
 Climate Cool temperate 
 (Snow - fully humid - warm summer (Dfb))
 Mean annual air temperature
 10.7 degreeC (1967-2006 at Takayama weather  station; 36º 09' 18" N, 137º 15' 12" E, 560.1 m  above sea level)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1722 mm (1967-2006 at Takayama weather station;  36º 09' 18" N, 137º 15' 12" E, 560.1 m above sea  level)
 Vegetation type
 Planted Evergreen Coniferous Forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Cyptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa
 Dominant species (Understory)
 shurabs (Acanthopanax sciadophylloides,  Reynoutria japonica), herbs (Houttuynia cordata,  Chrysosplenium japonicum), ferns (Dryopteris  crassirhizoma, Archniodes standishii)
 Canopy height
 about 20 m
 Age 40-50 years (in 2011)
 LAI PAI (Plant Area Index) 4.9-5.2 m2 m-2
 Soil type
 Volcanogenous regosol

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path systems (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (R3-50, Gill Instruments, UK)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (R3-50, Gill Instruments, UK)
 Water vapor
 Open- and Closed-path CO2/H2O analyzers 
 (LI-7500, LI-COR), 
 CO2 Open Path CO2/H2O Gas Analyzer (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 31 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar 30.5 m CM6B (Kipp & Zonen)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 29.7 m CM6B (Kipp & Zonen)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 30.5 m CG3 (Kipp & Zonen)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 29.7 m CG3 (Kipp & Zonen)
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 30.5 m LI-190SZ, LI-COR, USA
 PPFD (outgoing)
 29.7 m  LI-190SZ, LI-COR, USA
 (Forest floor)
 six points LI-190SB (LI-COR, USA), IKS-27 (Koito, Japan),  IKS-25 (Koito, Japan)
 Direct / diffuse  radiation
 Direct / diffuse  PPFD
 Air temperature
 30.2, 22.8,  18.4,  14.7,  10.6, 6.5,  3.6,  1.3 m Platinum resistance thermometer with  ventilated  radiation shields
 (HMP45A,  VAISALA, Finland)
 Humidity 30.2, 22.8,  18.4,  14.7,  10.6, 6.5,  3.6,  1.3 m Capacitive hygrometer with ventilated  radiation  shields 
 (HMP45A, VAISALA, Finland)
 Surface  temperature 30, 22, 2 m Infrared Thermometer
 (MI-710, PTEX, Siga, Japan)
 Soil temperature
 0.05, 0.1, 0.15,  0.2, 0.4 m Thermistor (107, Campbell, USA)
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 0.05, 0.1, 0.15,  0.2, 0.4 m TDR sensor (CS616, Campbell)
 Wind speed
 31, 23.4, 6.5, 2  m 3-cups anemometer (A100L2, Vector, UK),  Sonic anemometer (Windsonic, Gill  instruments,  UK)
 Wind direction
 30.9, 6.5, 2 m Wind vane (W200P, Vector, UK), Sonic  anemometer (Windsonic, Gill instruments, UK)
 1.5 m Barometer (PTB210, Vaisala)
 Precipitation 30.9 m Tipping-bucket rainguage with heater
 (CYG- 52202, R. M. Young)
 Snow depth 3.32 m Ultrasonic distance sensor
 (SR-50, Campbell, USA)
 30.2, 22.8, 18.4, 14.7, 10.6,  6.5, 3.6, 1.3 m CO2 gas analyzer (LI-820, LICOR, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Continues (automated chambers) by CO2 gas analyzer (LI-820, LI-COR, USA)
 Photosynthesis -
 Ecological investigation
 Tree heights (2005), Crown projection  (2005), Diameter of Breast Height,  Biomass (2004 to present; every year),  Litter fall (about every two months)
 Water cycle within canopy Through fall (twenty four points),
 Stem flow (three points)
 Remote sensing Fish-eye photographs (canopy, sky) and  Radiative spectrum (income, outcome) by  PEN (Phenological Eyes Network)  system. Fish-eye photographs at ninety  six points on the forest floor (November 7,  2006)
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 January 2005 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2007 in AsiaFlux Database
 Ichiro TAMAGAWA (tama [at]
 [Flux and micrometeorology]
 Taku M. SAITOH (taku [at]
  [Soil respiration and ecological survey]
 Yuichiro YASHIRO (yashiro [at]
 [Water cycle within canopy]
 Toshiharu KOJIMA (kojima [at]
 River Basin Research Center, Gifu University1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 
 501-1193 Japan
 [Remote sensing] 
 Shin NAGAI (nagai [at]
 Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth  Science and Technology3173-25 Showa-machi Kanazawa, Yokohama,  236-0001 Japan
 Calibration Information
 Open-path analyzers were calibrated approximately every two-six  months with two standard CO2 gases of 0 ppmv and 500 ppmv.
 The gain of CO2 of the closed-path analyzers (Li-820, LI-COR, USA)  was checked one a day by flowing two standard CO2 gases of 0 ppmv  and 500 ppmv, that were automatically controlled using CR10X  (Campbell, USA).

 Tower, Electrical power (AC), Facilities for communication (LAN to  Gifu University), Accommodation (Takayama research site, Gifu  University; About 20 minutes by car from TKC site).

Research Fund

 JSPS 21st Century COE program "Satellite Ecology" at Gifu University  (FY2004-2008)

 Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (#18780113) from  the Ministry of  Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of  Japan to Dr.  TM Saitoh (FY2006-2007)

 Grant-in-Aid for Scientific  Research (A) (#21241009) from the Ministry  of Education, Culture,  Sports, Science and Technology of Japan to Dr.  H. Kondo (FY2009-  2011)


 Lee M.-S., Lee J.-S., Koizumi H. (2008) Temporal variation in CO2  efflux from soil and snow surfaces in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria  japonica) plantation, central Japan. Ecol Res 23:777-785.

 Lee N.-Y., Koizumi H. (2009) Estimation of the number of sampling  points required for the determination of soil CO2 efflux in two types of  plantation in a temperate region. J Ecol Field Biol 32:67-73

 Senda M., Kageyama K., Suga H. and L?vesque A. (2009) Two new  species of Pythium, P. senticosum and P. takayamanum, isolated  from cool-temperate forest soil in Japan. Mycologia 101:439-448.

 Yashiro Y., Lee N.-Y., Ohtsuka T., Shizu Y., Saitoh T.M., Koizumi H.  (2010) Biometric based estimation of net ecosystem production (NEP)  in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath  a flux tower. Journal of Plant Research., 123, 463-472, DOI  10.1007/s10265-010-0323-8.

 Saitoh T.M., Tamagawa I., Muraoka H., Lee N-Y., Yashiro Y., and  Koizumi H. (2010) Carbon dioxide exchange in a cool-temperate  evergreen coniferous forest over complex topography in Japan during  two years with contrasting climates. Journal of Plant Research. , 123,  473-483, DOI 10.1007/s10265-009-0308-7.

 Saitoh T.M., Tamagawa I., Muraoka H., and Koizumi H. (2010) Heat  storage due to photosynthesis and respiration activities in forests,  Journal of Agricultural Meteorology, 66(4), 289-298 (in Japanese with  English summary).

 Sasai T., Saigusa N., Nasahara K.M., Ito A., Hashimoto H., Nemani  R., Hirata H., Ichii K., Takagi T., Saitoh T.M., Ohta T., Murakami K.,  Oikawa T., Yamagichi Y. (2011) Satellite-driven estimation of terrestrial  carbon flux over Far East Asia with 1-km grid resolution, Remote  Sensing of Environment 115, 1758-1771,  doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.03.007.

 Saitoh T.M., Tamagawa, I. and Muraoka H. (2011) Effect of storage  CO2term on evaluating carbon budget using eddy-covariance  measurement,Journal of the Japanese Forest Society, 93,105-112 (in  Japanese withEnglish summary).

 Saitoh T.M., Tamagawa, I., Muraoka H., and Koizumi H. (2011)  Energybalance closure over a cool temperate forest in steeply  slopingtopography during snowfall and snow-free periods, Journal  of  Agricultural Meteorology, 67(3), 107-116

 Nagai S., Saitoh T.M., Kobayashi H., Ishihara M., Suzuki R., Motohka  T.,Nasahara K.N. and Muraoka H. (in press) In situ examination of  the  relationship between various vegetation indices and canopy phenology  in an evergreen coniferous forest, Japan. International Journal of  Remote Sensing.

 Saitoh T.M., Nagai S., Yoshino J., Muraoka H., Saigusa N., and  TamagawaI. (accepted) Functional consequences of differences in  canopy phenologyfor the carbon budgets of two cool-temperate forest  types: simulationsusing the NCAR/LSM model and validation using  tower flux and biometricdata. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research.