TGK:Tibet Grassland Site

General site detail (updated 25 November 2011)
 Site name
 Tibet Grassland Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Naqu, Tibet
 Position 31.37° N, 91.90° E
 Elevation 4580 m a.s.l
 Slope Flat
 Terrain type
 Area -
 Fetch over 2 km for all direction
 Climate Cool continental climate(Dwc)
 Mean annual air temperature
 Mean annual precipitation
 Vegetation type
 Short grass
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 < 0.5m
 Age -
 LAI < 0.5
 Soil type
 Sandy silt loam

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system  (CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed 
 CSAT3(Campbell, USA) in 1998 /
 CSAT3(Campbell Scientific, USA) and 
 DA-600(Kaijo Denki Co., Ltd., Japan) in 2002
 Air temperature
 Humidity and temperature probe
 (HMP45, Vaisala, the Netherlands)
 Water vapor
 Krypton hygrometer (KH2O, Campbell Scientific, USA)
 CO2 -
 Measurement height
 3 m
 Sampling frequency
 20HZ in 1998 / 10Hz in 2002
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR9000  (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw and Statistics 

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 - Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 - Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 - Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) - Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 Net radiation
 - Net radiometer
 (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands)
 PPFD (incoming)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 3 m 
 Fine-wire thermocouple
 Humidity - 
 Soil temperature
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 Wind speed
 3m in 1998 / 3,  20m in 2002 

 CSAT3(Campbell Scientific, USA) in 1998 / 
 DA-600(Kaijo Denki Co. Ltd., Japan; 3,20m) /  CSAT3(Campbell Scientific, USA;20m) in 2002
 Wind direction
 3m in 1998 / 3,  20m in 2002  CSAT3(Campbell Scientific, USA) in 1998 / 
 DA-600(Kaijo Denki Co. Ltd., Japan; 3,20m) /  CSAT3(Campbell Scientific, USA;20m) in 2002
 Precipitation - TE525(Campbell Scientific, USA)
 H2O concentration 3m KH2O(Campbell Scientific, USA)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis -
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 May-September, 1998 /
 June-December, 2002
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Joon Kim (joon [at]
 Department of Landscape Architecture & Rural Systems Engineering,  Seoul National UniversityComplex Systems Science Laboratory,  Bld.36/Rm.108, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu,  Seoul 151-742, Korea
 Phone : +82-2-880-4663 Fax : +82-2-365-5163
 Jinkyu Hong, Taejin Choi, Hirohiko Ishikawa and Joon Kim, 2004.  Turbulence structures in the near-neutral surface layer on the Tibetan  Plateau, Geophysical Ressearch Letter, 31, L15106,  doi:1029/10.2004GL019935

 Taejin Choi, Jinkyu Hong, Joon Kim, Heechoon Lee, Jun Asanuma,  Hirohiko Ishikawa, Osamu Tsukamoto, Gao Zhiqiu, Yaoming Ma,  Kenichi Ueno, Jiemin Wang, Toshio Koike, Tetsuo Tasunari, 2004.  Turbulent exchange of heat, water vapor and momentum over Tibetan  prairie by eddy covariance and flux variance measurements. Journal of  Geophysical Research, 109, D21106, doi:1029/2004JD00476