SZN:Hokkaido University Shizunai Livestock Farm

General site detail (Updated 28 April 2010)
 Site name
 Hokkaido University Shizunai Livestock Farm
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Shizunai, Shinhidaka, Hokkaido, Japan
 Position 42º 26' N, 142º 29' E
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Elevation 120-130 m above sea level
 (World Geodetic System 1984)
 Slope 1deg sloping down to south
 Terrain type
 almost flat
 Area 100 m x100 m for each of Chemical fertilizer plot  and Manure plot(Total area is 7 ha)
 Fetch 50-70 m
 Climate cool temperate, Dfb
 Mean annual air temperature
 7.9 deg C (1979-2000)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1365 mm (1979-2000)
 Vegetation type
 hay meadow (Chemical fertilizer and Manure plots)
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.),  meadow foxtail (Aleopecurus pratensis L.)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Canopy height
 Maximum 1.2 m
 Age More than 30 years in 2010
 LAI -
 Soil type
 Thaptic Melanudands (Soil Survey Staff, 2006,  Mollic Andosol (IUSS Working Group, WRB, 2006))

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system 
 Wind speed 
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Air temperature
 Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Water vapor
 NDIR (LI-7500, Li-Cor, USA)
 CO2 NDIR (LI-7500, Li-Cor, USA)
 Measurement height
 2.51 m at mature plot, 2.42 m at fertilizer plot
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR23X-4M (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) -
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
  1.6 m Quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-190SA)
 PPFD (outgoing)
  1.6 m Quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-190SA)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 2.5 m Ventilated Pt resistance thermometer
 (HMP-45A, Vaisala)
 Humidity 2.5 m 
 Capacitive hygrometer
 (HMP45A, Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 -0.05, -0.1, -0.5  m T-type thermocoupule
 (T-soil4, Meiwafosis
 Soil heat flux
 Soil water 
 -0.05, -0.1  -0.5  m Dielectric aquameter (EC20, DECAGON)
 Wind speed
 2.51m at  mature plot,  2.42m at  fertilizer plot Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Wind direction
 2.51m at  mature plot Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 2.42m at  fertilizer plot Sonic anemometer-thermometer
 (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific)
 Precipitation - 
 Soil respiration
 Static closed chamber
 Photosynthesis Static closed chamber
 Ecological Investigation Static closed chamber
 CH4 Static closed chamber (biweekly)  
 N2O Static closed chamber (biweekly)
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from August 2004 to August 2007 
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Ryusuke HATANO (hatano [at]
 Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido UniversityKita9,Nishi9,
 Kita-ku,Sapporo,Hokkaido 060-8589,Japan
 TEL : + 81-11-706-3857FAX : + 81-11-706-2494
 Akira MIYATA (amiyat [at]
 Agro-Meteorology Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental  Sciences (NIAES)3-1-1, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan
 TEL: + 81-29-838-8239FAX: + 81-29-838-8211
 Mariko SHIMIZU (mariko-s [at]
 Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido UniversityKita9,Nishi9,
 Kita-ku,Sapporo,Hokkaido 060-8589,Japan
 TEL : + 81-11-706-2503FAX : + 81-11-706-2494
 Calibration Information
 Open-path analyzers were calibrated approximately every year with  standard CO2 gases and a dew point generator (LI610; LI-COR Inc.,  USA)


 2.5m high tower, AC 100V

 Research Fund

 Research grants from Racing and Livestock Association organized by  Japan Grassland Agriculture & Forage Seed Association for the  Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation Project in Japanese  Grasslands

 Other Information

 Fertilizer plot and manure plot were established in September 2004.  The plots were cut twice per year and were fertilized at the beginning of  each growing cycle.Fertilizer and manure application: [Average from  1998 to 2004] Manure: 5.3 FM t ha-1, Slurry: 3.5 FM t ha-1, Chemical  Fertilizer:96 kg N ha-1, [Manure plots (2005~)] Manure: 43-44 FM t ha-  1, Chemical Fertilizer: 130-133 kg N ha-1, [Fertilizer (2005~)] Chemical  Fertilizer: 164-183 kg N ha-1

 Shimizu, M., Marutani, S., Desyatkin, A.R., Jin, T., Hata, H., Hatano,  R. 2009. The effect of manure application on carbon dynamics and  budgets in a managed grassland of Southern Hokkaido, Japan.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 130: 31-40.

 Jin, T., Shimizu, M., Marutani, S., Desyatkin, A.R., Iizuka, N., Hata,  H., Hatano, R. 2010. Effect of chemical fertilizer and manure  application on N2O emission from reed canary grassland in Hokkaido,  Japan. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition. 56: 53-65.