SMF: Seto Mixed Forest Site

General site detail (Updated 9 December 2019)
 Site name
 Seto Mixed Forest Site
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Seto, Aichi Pref, Japan
 Position 35º 15' N, 137º 04' E
 Elevation 205 m above sea level
 Slope on a ridge
 Terrain type
 Area -
 Fetch 1 km
 Climate Warm temperate
 Mean annual air temperature
 15.1ºC (1989-2008 Tajimi AMeDAS station)
 Mean annual precipitation
 1615mm (1989-2008 Tajimi AMeDAS station)
 Vegetation type
 Mixed forest,
 Secondary evergreen broadleaved forest
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Ilex pedunculosa, Symplocos prunifolia, Quercus  serrata, Evodiopanax innovans
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Dicranopteris pedata, Eurya japonica, Osmanthus  heterophyllus
 Canopy height
 8.1 m
 Age 75-85 years in 2016
 LAI 3.57 m2 m-2 (PAI) in the foliated season
 Soil type
 Brown forest soils, Cambisols(WRB),
 Inceptisols(USDA) (Urakawa et al., 2014)

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system
 Wind speed 
 Ultrasonic anemometer (SAT-540, KAIJO, Japan)
 Air temperature
 Ultrasonic anemometer (SAT-540, KAIJO, Japan)
 Water vapor
 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzers (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 CO2 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzers (LI-7500, LI-COR, USA)
 Measurement height
 19 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 CR3000, CR1000 (Campbell, USA)
 Data storage
 Laptop computer
 Original data
 Contact to PI

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 18.05 m CNR1 (Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 18.05 m CNR1 (Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Long-wave radiation(incoming) 
 18.05 m CNR1 (Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
  Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 18.05 m CNR1 (Kipp and Zonen, Netherland)
 Net radiation
 PPFD (incoming)
 18.05 m Li-190 (LICOR, USA) -2010/2
 SQ100 (Apogee, USA) 2013/5-
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse PPFD
 Air temperature
 18.05 m HMP45D (Vaisala, Finnland)
 Humidity 18.05 m 
 HMP45D (Vaisala, Finnland)
 Soil temperature
 0.02, 0.05,  0.10, 0.20,  0.50 m C-PT100 (Climatec, Japan)
 Soil heat flux
 PHF-01 (REBS Inc., USA)
 Soil water 
 0.02, 0.05,  0.10, 0.20,  0.50m CS-616 (Campbell Sci., USA)
 Wind speed
 18.8 m 
 010C (MetOne, USA)
 Wind direction
 18.8 m 020C (MetOne, USA)
 18 m PTB210(Vaisala, Finland)
 Precipitation 18.05 m 34-T(Ohta Keiki, Japan)
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis irregular
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and data Availability
 Measurement Period
 from September 2002 - to
 April 2017
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 2002-2017 in AsiaFlux DataBase
 Ayumi Kotani (kotani [at]
 Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University
 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya city 464-8601
 Tel & Fax : +81-052-789-4059
 Tower, Solar energy system

 Research Fund
 Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Core Research for  Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program
 [Effects of Rainfall Variability on Water Cycle and Ecosystem in  Tropical Rain Forest under Asian Monsoon Climate]

 [Field and modelling studies on the effect of forest devastation on  flooding and environmental issues] 

Daikoku, K., Hattori, S., Deguchi, A., Fujita, Y., Park, H., and Matsumoto, K. (2007) Impact of wind direction on diurnal and seasonal changes in wind profiles. J. For. Res., 12, 452-466. DOI 10.1007/s10310-007-0034-8

Daikoku, K., Hattori, S., Deguchi, A., Aoki, Y., Miyashita, M., Matsumoto, K., Akiyama, J., Iida, S., Toba, T., Fujita, Y., and Ohta, T. (2008) Influence of evaporation from the forest floor on evaporation from the dry canopy. Hydrol. Process. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7010

Matsumoto, K., Ohta, T., Nakai, T., Kuwada, T., Daikoku, K., Iida, S., Yabuki, H., Kononov, A. V., van der Molen, M. K., Kodama, Y., Maximov, T. C., Dolman, A. J., and Hattori, S. (2008) Energy consumption and evapotranspiration at several boreal and temperature forests in the Far East. Agric. For. Meteorl., 148, 1978-1989.

Nakai, T., Sumida, A., Daikoku, K., Matsumoto, K., van der Molen, M. K., Kodama, Y., Kononov, A. V., Maximov, T. C., Dolman, A. J., Yabuki, H., Hara, T., and Ohta, T. (2008)Prameterization of aerodynamic roughness over boreal, cool- and warm-temperate forests. Agric. For. Meteorl., 148, 1916-1925.