SJP: Simotsuma Japanese pear orchard

Gengeral site detail (Updated 5 April 2007)
 Site name
 Simotsuma Japanese pear orchard
 AsiaFlux site code
 Location Shimotsuma, Ibaraki, Japan
 Position 36º 12'40.9"N, 139º 56'50.6"E
 Elevation 21 m above sea level
 Slope 0-1 degree
 Terrain type
 Area 4.5 ha
 Fetch 140-320 m
 Climate Temperate(Cfa)
 Mean annual air temperature
 13.7degC (1979~2000)
 Mean annual precipitation
 Vegetation type
 Japanese pear orchard
 Domestic species (Overstory)
 Japanese pear(Kosui,Hosui)
 Dominant species (Understory)
 Clean Cultivation
 Canopy height
 2 - 4 m
 Age 3-25 years (2007)
 LAI 3.5
 Soil type

Eddy Covariance method (CO2)
 System Open-path system(CO2 flux, latent heat flux)
 Wind speed
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer thermometer  (R3,GILL)
 Air temperature
 Three-dimensional sonic anemometer thermometer  (R3,GILL)
 Water vapor
 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer(LI-7500,LI-COR)
 CO2 Open-path CO2/H2O analyzer(LI-7500,LI-COR)
 Measurement height
 6 m
 Sampling frequency
 10 Hz
 Averaging time
 30 min
 Data logger
 Data storage
 Original data
 Raw data

 Observation items
  Levels/ Depth
 Global solar radiation(incoming)
 6 m Radiometer (MR40,Eko,Japan)
 Global solar 
radiation (outgoing)
 6 m Radiometer (MR40,Eko,Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 6 m Radiometer (MR40,Eko,Japan)
 Long-wave radiation(outgoing) 
 6 m Radiometer (MR40,Eko,Japan)
 Net radiation
 6 m Radiometer (MR40,Eko,Japan)
 PPFD (incoming)
 6 m Quantum sensor(LI-190S,LI-cor)
 PPFD (outgoing)
 Direct / diffuse radiation
 Direct / diffuse  PPFD
 Air temperature
 7.0, 3.5 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer(HMP45A,Vaisala)
 Humidity 7.0, 3.5 m Platinum resistance thermometer and capacitive  hygrometer(HMP45A,Vaisala)
 Soil temperature
 0.05,0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7,1.0  m Thermocouple
 Soil heat flux
 0.05 m
 Soil Heat Flux Plate(HFT3,Campbell)
 Soil water 
 0.05,0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7,1.0  m Water Content  Reflectometer(CS615,Campbell)
 Wind speed
 8.0,7.0,5.0,3.5,1.0 m Cup anemometer(AF750,Makino)
 Wind direction
 8.0 m Wind vane(VF016,Makino)
 Precipitation - 
 Soil respiration
 Photosynthesis occasionally
 Ecological investigation
Observation Period and Data Availability
 Measurement Period
 March 2007 to present
 Measurement Frequency
 Data Availability
 Hiroyoshi Sugiura (hsugiura [at]
 Research Team for Effects of Global Warming on Fruit TreesNational  Institute of Fruit Tree Science2-1
 Tel: +81-29-838-6506 Fax: +81-29-838-6507
 Electrical power (AC)